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Full text of "The Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam"






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THE 



& 






JOURNAL 



OF THE 




Natural History Society of Siam. 



Vol. IV. 

Comprising 5 parts and containing 11 plates, 
1 text figure and 1 map. 

No. 1. Pages 1 to 50 issued May 1st. 1920. 

Edited by Malcolm Smith and W. J. F. Williamson. 

No. 2. Pages 51 to 108 issued March 1921. 

Edited by W. J. F. Williamson and L. Brewitt Taylor. 

No. 3. Pages 109 to 202 issued Nov. 15 1921. 

Edited by Malcolm Smith and W. J. F. Williamson. 

No. 4. Pages 203 to 250 issued July 25, 1922. 

Edited by Malcolm Smith and E. J. Godfrey. 

No. 5. Index etc. issued December 1922, 

Edited by Malcolm Smith and E. J. Godfrey. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV. 



No. 1. 

Page. 

The Apple-Snails of Si am. By N. Annandale, d. se., 

f.a.s.b., (Zoological Survey of India). With two Plates 1 

Notes on a Collection of Bird-Skins formed by Mr. E. G. 
Herbert, c.m.z.s., m.b.o.u. By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., 
f.z.s., c.f.a.o.u., m.b.o.u. (Continued from Page 443, 
Vol. III.). ... ... ... ... ... 25 

The Apple-Snails of Siam. By N. Annandale, d.sc, f.a.s.b. : 

Addendum ... ... ... ... ... 45 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. — Note on Siamese Pheasants. By E. C. Stuart Baker, 

F.L.S., F.Z.S., C.F.A.O.U. M.B.O.U., ... ... 47 

II. — Notes on Early Snipe. By E. G. Herbert, c.m.z.s., 

m.b.o.u. ... ... ... ... ... 47 

No. 2. 

More Notes on Siamese Birds. By C. Boden Kloss, 

m.b.o.u. ... ... ... ... 51 

Two New Leggada Mice from Siam. By C. Boden Kloss, 

f.z.s. ... ... ... ... ... 59 

On Rattus blythi Kloss (Mus cinnamomeus Blyth), with 

remarks on allied forms. By C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. ... 65 

A New Giant Squirrel from Pulo Condore. By C. Boden 

Kloss, f.z.s. ... ... ... ... 71 

The Pulo Condore Group and its Mammals. By C. Boden 

Kloss, f.z.s. ... ... ... ... 73 

Some Birds from Pulo Condore. By H. C. Robinson and 

C. Boden Kloss. ... ... ... ... 85 

Reptiles and Batrachians Collected on Pulo Condore. 

By Malcolm A. Smith, f.z.s. ... ... ... 93 

On a Small Collection of Mammals frcm Cambodia. 

By C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. ... ... ... 99 

Two New Races cf Sciurus finlaysoni. By C. Boden 

Kloss, f.z.s. ,,, ... ... ... 103 



Miscellaneous Notes: — 

Page. 

I.— A habitat of Schomburgk's Deer fCervus sehom- 

burghl). By C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. ... ... 105 

II. The status of the Burmese House-Crow (Corvus 

splendens insolens) as a Siamese Bird. By W. J. F. 
Williamson, m.b.o.u ... ... ... 105 

No. 3. 

On Plants from South Annam. By Messrs. Baker, Moore, 

Rendle, Ridley and Wernham. ... ... ... 109 

Report on a Collection of Dragonflies from the Lao 

Country-. By Major F. C. Fraser, i.m.s. With a Plate ... 161 
Some Undescribed Rhopalocera from Siam. By N. D. 

Riley, f.z.s., f.e.s. and E. J. Godfrey, b. sc., f.e.s. 

With 4 Plates ... ... ... ... 167 

A New Race of Nutmeg-Pigeon from Pulo Condore. By 

C. Boden Kloss, m.b.o.u., c.f.a.o.u. ... ... 191 

A New Name for the Frog Rana jmllus. By Malcolm A. 

Smith, F.z.s. ... ... ... ... 193 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. — The Burmese House-Crow (Corvus splendens 

insolens) at Petchaburi. By Lucius C. Bulkley. 195 

II. — The Giant Ibis (Thaumatibis gigantea) in 

Cambodia. By W. J. F. Williamson, m.b.o.u. ... 196 

III. — Earth Snake Eating a Grass Snake. By 

Malcolm Smith. ... ... ... 196 

IV. — Curious Fishing Ceremony on the Upper 

Mekong. By A. H. Duke. ... ... 197 

Proceedings of the Society. ... ... ... 199 

Statement of Accounts for 1920. ... .. 201 

List of Members on October 31, 1921. ... ... 202 

No. 4. 

Notes on Reptiles and Batrachians from Siam and 

Indo-China. No. 1. By Malcolm A. Smith, f.z.s. 

With Plate 8 ... ... ... ... 203 

The Frogs Allied to Rana Dori^e. By Malcolm A. 

Smith, f.z.s. With Plate 9 ... ... ... 215 

The Frogs Allied to Rana Dori,e. Addendum. By Malcolm 

A. Smith, f.z.s. With a text figure ... ... 227 

A Collection of Dragonflies from Bangkok. By Major 

F. C Fraser, i.m.s. With Plate 10 ... ... 231 



Miscellaneous Notes : — 

Page. 
I. — Note on the Malay Sambar (Cervus unicolor 

equinus). By K. G. Gairdener ... 239 

II— Intelligence of Otters. By Malcolm Smith ... 239 
III. — The Bittern (Botaurus stellar is) in Siam. 

By C. J. Aagaard ... ... ... 240 

VI. — The Burmese House Crow fCorvus splendens 

insolens). By K. G. Gairdner ... ... 240 

V. — Pinus Merkusii. : By K. G. Gairdner ... 241 

Review. '• The Snakes of Ceylon " ... ... 242 

Proceedings of the Society ... ... ... 243 

Publications in the Library of the Natural History 

Society of Siam. ... ... ... 247 



VOLUME IV. ERRATA. 

The plate of Gymnodactylus condorensis and Gonatodes r/laucus in 

No. 2 is not numbered. 
The explanation of Plate V. Fig. 2. should read Penthema binghami 

mimetica Lathy. d\ 

P. 45, line 10, for L. begini read 'P. begini'. 

P. 81, „ 6, for ' M. atriceps irus' read ' M. irus atriceps'. 

P. 115, „ 25, for ' laterae ' read 'latum'. 

27, for '6, remotis' read '6 remotis,'. 

34, insert ' ut ' between ' basin ' and ' videtur'. 
P. 116, „ 1, for 'augustus' read 'angustis'. 
P. 117, last line, for 'leasali' read 'basali'. 
P. 118, line 2, for '.2mm.' read '2mm'. 
P. 119, „ 23, for '.7 read 7'; line 28, for '.5 read 5'. 
P. 120, „ 29, for ' .7 read 7 ' ; line 30 and 31, for '.5 read 5 '. 
P. 121, „ 2 and 16, for '.5' read '5'. 

17, for 'augusta' read 'angusta'. 

P. 126, „ 10, for ' Timbristylis ' read ' Fimbristylis '. 

P. 127, „ 14, before '5.5 — 10 cm.' insert 'Lamina.' 

P. 128, „ 31, after 'India' add 'Java'. 

P. 129, „ 1, after 'India' add ' S. China, Tonkin '. 

P. 130, „ 11, for 'annamensis' read 'annamense'. 

P. 132, „ 5, for ' saxifragace^e ' read ' Droseracera^e '. 

P. 135, „ 17, for 'in' read 'ex'. 

18, for ' tenuissimi ebracteolati multo' read ' tenues 

ebracteolata flores multo'. 

P. 1 37, „ 6, for ' ind. Or ' read ' India '. 
13, for ' divisse ' read ' onustse '. 

1, for ' 6' read ' .6. ' 
3, for ' Boerhaavia ' read ' boerhavi^efolia '. 

31, for ' minuti ' read ' muniti '. 

15, for 'annamensis' read 'anamensis'. 

6, for ' 85 ' read ' 8.5 '. 
26, for ' loniorem ' read ' longiorem '. 
23, for ' Melanthesopsis ' read ' Melanthesiopsis '. 

2, for ' Formoso ' read ' Formosa '. 



P. 


151, 


p. 


153, 


p. 


155, 


p. 


157, 


p. 


158, 


p. 


160, 



THE 



OURNAL 



OF THE 



Natural History Society of Siam. 



Vol. IV., No. 1. 



Date of issue, May 1st, 1920. 



EDITED BY 
Malcolm Smith and W. J. F. Williamson. 

Price to Members, Tcs. 1.25 

Price to Non-Members, .' _ Tcs. 3.00 



Agents:— WITHERBY & Co., LONDON. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

The Apple-Snails of Siam. By N. Annandale, D. Sc, 

F.A.S.B., (Zoological Survey of India). With two Plates 1 

Notes on a Collection of Bird-Skins formed By Mr. E. G. 
Herbert, c.m.z.s., m.b.o.u. By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., 
f.z.s., c.f.a.o.u., m.b.o.u. (Continued from Page 443, 
Vol. III.) ... ... ... ... ... 25 

The Apple-Snails of Siam. By N. Annandale, D.Sc, F.A.S.B., 
Addendum ... ... ... ... ... 45 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. — Note on Siamese Pheasants By E. C. Stuart Baker, 

F.L.S., F.Z.S., C.F.A.O.U., M.B.O.U., ... ... 47 

II. — Notes on Early Snipe By E. G. Herbert, c.m.z.s., 

m.b.o.u. ... ... ... ... ... 47 



THE / 

JOURNAL ^_ 

OF THE 



Natural History Society of Slam. 



Volume IV. BANGKOK. Number 1. 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM. 

By N. Annandale, D. So., F.A.S.B., 

(Zoological Survey of India). 

With 2 plates. 

The Ampullariidae or Apple-Snails are the largest of the 
freshwater Gastropod molluscs and can as a rule be recognized by 
their comparatively great size and by their almost globular shells. 
Even the smaller forms are considerably larger than most other 
water-snails, but a few gigantic Pond-Snails (Viviparidae), found 
mostly in China, are larger than the smallest species, and approach 
the Ampullariidae in shape of shell. The Oriental Apple- 
Snails can, however, be readily distinguished from all others of 
large or moderate size found with them by their thick shelly 
opercula, and by the fact that they possess, in addition to the ordi- 
nary tentacles, a tentacle-like process on either side of the mouth. 
They are found in ponds, marshes, rice-fields and sluggish streams, 
where aquatic vegetation grows luxuriantly, for they are voracious 
feeders and their chief food consists of water-plants, which they 
masticate by means of a pair of stout horny jaws, situated laterally, 
as well as scraping them with the teeth of their lingual ribbon, which 
are unusually large. On occasion they will eat decaying animal 
matter, including the bodies of their own kind, and some species 
rasp small algae from the shells of their fellows, causing unsightly 
patches as they remove the epidermis or periostracum with the algae. 



2 DR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

The breathing apparatus of these snails is of complex 
structure and the branchial chamber is divided into two parts, one 
of which may be described as a lung for breathing air, -while the 
other is a cavity in which it is supposed that oxygen can be 
extracted from water. They are, however, practically air-breathers, 
and may be observed t ) riss to the surface from time to time and 
thrusb out through the surface-film a stout funnel-shaped siphon, 
through which they draw air into their lung. 

In countries that have a dry and a wet season, the Ampul- 
lariidae aestivate or hibernate in the former, burying themselves in 
the ground, where they remain in a comatose condition, with the 
operculum tightly closing the shell, until rain falls. 

The shell does not increase iu size while the animal is inac- 
tive ; indeed, growth seems to be limited to the early part of the 
active season. A growing shell can usually be recognized by the 
extreme thinness of the free margin of its mouth. 

The eggs are large and have a brittle, white, calcareous shell. 
Suue species lay them in irregular masses in depressions in the 
ground, while others attach them to the tree-trunks, posts, etc., at 
the edo-e of water. In the former case the eggs are spherical and 
adhere together lightly, in the latter they may be so closely compact- 
ed as to be irregular in form. In one Siamese species (Pachylabra 
turbinis) only the inner eggs of the mass are fertile, the outer eggs 
bung degenerate and forming a protective covering for the fertile 
ones. 

Only one genus is at present recognized among the Orien- 
tal Ampullariidae, but it will probably be necessary to separate a 
small Indian species (Ampullaria mix Reeve) on anatomical 
grounds. This species differs from its present congeners in living 
in small mountain torrents. There has been much dispute within 
the last few years as to the generic, and hence the family, name of 
the ordinary species. Until recently all those forms the shell of 
which has a right-handed spiral were known as Ampullarm 
Lamarck (179!)), and the family as Ampullariidae ; the genus was 
believed to be of circumtropical range. But there can be no doubt 
(1) that the type-species of Ampullaria was (though Lamarck was 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM. 3 

ignorant of the fact) a West Indian form, and (2) that the Neotro- 
pical species differ from those of Africa and Asia in having a horny 
instead of a calcareous operculum, and in the fact that the siphon 
when expanded is an elongate cylindrical tube many times as long- 
as thick, whereas that of the Oriental and African species is in the 
same condition no longer than broad and distinctly funnel-shaped. 
These characters seem to be of generic importance. 

Granting that these species are gtinerically distinct from the 
American ones, and that the name Ampuilaria properly belongs 
to the latter, recent writers adopt one of two generic 
names for the African and Oriental species, either Pila Bolton 
(1798) or Pachylabra Swainson (1840). Pila, as Kobelti has 
shown, is inadmissable and I have, therefore, adopted the name 
Pachylabra. This course leaves the family name Ampullariidae 
intact. 

In describing the Siamese species of Pachylabra I have had 
in my hands material from the following sources : — 

(1) The old collection of the Indian Museum, discussed in 

Nevill's "Hand List" (1884). 

(2) A fine series of shells of P. turbinis var. dalyi from 

Pitsanuloke presented to the Indian Museum some 
years ago by Mr. H. W. Biggie of the Indian Fcrest 
Service. 

(3) A small collectipn made by myself in the province of 

Singgora (Songkla) in 1916. 

(4) Another recently made by Mr. C. Boden Kloss in the 

Korat district and on Eoh Samesan in the Gulf of 
Siam, and presented to the Indian Museum by him. 

(5) A series of shells and living specimens of the new 

species P. angelica sent me from Bangkok by Dr. 

Malcolm Smith in July, 1919. 

I have to thank those who have provided much of this 

valuable material, and also Dr. Baini Prashad of the Bengal Fishery 

Department, who has sketched the radulae figured in this paper 

1 Kobelt, Fam. Ampullariidae in Martini and Chemnitz's Conch. - 
Cab., p. 44 (1911). See also Dall, Journ. Conch. (London) II. p. 50 (1904). 

VOL. IV, NO. b 1920, 



4 DR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

and has given me other assistance. The drawings and photographs, 
here reproduced, have been prepared by the artists of the Zoological 
Survey of India. 

The Zoological Survey of India would be very grateful for 
further specimens from any part of Siam, as they would be of great 
assistance in the survey of the freshwater molluscs of the Indian 
Empire that we are at present undertaking. Living snails will 
travel safely in a dry condition to Calcutta by post, as those sent 
me by Dr. Malcolm Smith have proved. 

Pachylabra Swainson. 

1911. Pachylabra, Kobelt, Fam. Ampullariidae in Maitini and 

Chemnitz's Gonch. Cab., p. 44. 

In this genus are included all the normally right-handed 
species of Ampullariidae that have a calcareous operculum. It is 
necessary to insert the word "normally", because in certain species 
( e, g. the common Indian P. globosa ) abnormal shells occur 
( very rarely ) that have a left-handed spiral. Information 
is not available as to the anatomy of such aberrant individuals, but in 
the African genus Meladomus, in which a left-handed spiral is a 
normal generic character, the shell is said to be hypertrophic and 
the anatomy of the animal is not reversed. 

The range of the genus is strictly tropical. In India it does 
not extend into the Punjab, though it embraces the whole of the 
plains of the Gangetic system and the greater part of South India. 
Generally speaking it may be defined as consisting of the Ethiopian 
and Oriental Regions, including Madagascar, with the exception of 
desert and mountainous areas. In Siam at least seven species are 
found. In " Etudes di verses " of the Mission Pa vie to Indo-China 
(Vol III, 1904, p. 425) Fischer and Dautzenberg give the following 
particulars of species recoi'ded from Siam : — 

P. borneensis (Philippi) from Bangkok & Chengmai 

? P. celebensis (Quoy & Gaimard) „ " Siam " 
? P. conica. (Gray) „ „ 

P. globosa (Swainson) „ (The marshes of the Menam 

near Bangkok) 

JOURN- NAT, IJIST. SOC. SJ.' .M 



JOURNAL NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. VOL IV. 



Plate I. 






8. 












W. 



S. C. Mondul Photo. 



SIAMESE AMPULLARIID^. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE I. 

Pachylabra polita (Deshayes). 
Fig. 1. Large shell from Cambodia. Half natural size. 
Fig. 2. Type — specimen of var. compressus Nevill, from 
Cambodia. Half natural size. 

Pachylabra conica (Gray). 
Fig. 3. Shell from Pegu, Burma. Two-thirds natural size. 

Pachylabra gracilis (Lea). 
Fig. 4. Shell from Siam. Natural size. 

Pachylabra turbinis (Lea). 
Fig. 5. Type-specimen of var. subglohosa, Nevill. ?From 
Siam. Half natural size. 
Pachylabra turbinis var. dalyi (Blanford). 
Fig. 6. Large shell from Pitsanuloke, Siam. Half natural 
size. 
Pachylabra turbinis var. subampullacea, Nevill. 
Fig. 7. Large shell from Lampam, Patalung, Siam. Half 
natural size. 
Pachylabra turbinis var. lacustris, no v. 
Fig. 8. Type-specimen from the Tale Sap, near Lampam, 
Siam. Half natural size. 

Pachylabra angelica, sp. nov. 
Figs. 9, 10. Type-specimens from Bangkok. Half natural 
size. 

Pachylabra begini (Morlet.) 
Fig. 11. Shell from Korat district. Two-thirds natural 
size. 

Pachylabra pesmei (Morlet). 
Fig. 12. Shell from Koh Samesan off C. Liant, Gulf of Siam 
Natural size. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM, VOL. IV. 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM. 5 

P. gracilis (Lea) from " Siam " 

P. pesmei (Morlet) „ Srakao 

"P. polita (Deshayes) „ Chengmai 

P. turbinis (Lea) „ " Siam " 

The occurrence of P. borneensis [the synonomy of which is 
still doubtful], of P. celebensis [=P. ampullacea (L.)] and of P. globosa 
in Siam is most improbable. The two former are species found in 
the Malay Archipelago and are known to have been often confused 
with mainland forms. P. globosa is the common form in the valley 
of the Ganges. The species here described as P. angelica may have 
been confused with it. 

The late Dr. W. T. Blanford, who was well acquainted with 
the Indian and Burmese species and varieties, recorded the following 
species from northern Siam : — 

P. polita (Deshayes) P. gracilis (Lea). 

P. conica (Gray) P. dalyi Blanford. 

To these must be added the race describe;! by Nevill long pre- 
viously as Ampullaria turbinis var., subampidlacea, and also a 
second variety of the same species (lacustris) to be described here, a 
hitherto unknown species for which I propose tha name P. angelica, 
and, finally, the Cambodian species P. begini (Morlet). I regard P. 
dalyi as a variety of P. turbinis. The following list of species, 
varieties and localities embodies our present knowledge of the 
geographical distribution of Siamese forms so far as that kingdom 
is concerned : — 

P. polita. Bangkok & Chengmai (Fisch. & Dautz.) ; ? Upper 
Menam (Blanford). 

P. conica. Pitsanuloke ; Lam pun (Blanford). 

P. gracilis. Lampun (Blanford). 

P. angelica. Bangkok. 

P. turbinis. " Siam". 

P. turbinis race dalyi. N. Siam (Blanford); Pitsanuloke. 

P. turbinis race subampullacea. Singgora and Patalung. 

P. turbinis race lacustris. Inner region of Inland Sea of 
Singgora. 

P. begini. Lat Bua Kao, Korat. 

VOL, IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



6 DR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

P. pesmei. Srakao (Fisch. & Dautz.); Koh Samesan off 
C. Liant. 

I have examined shells of all these species, and radulae of 
P. conica, P. angelica, P. turbinis var. subampullacea, P. beg i at 
and P. pesmei. 

Key to the Siamese species of Pachylabba 

I. Shell with 6£ whorls. 

A. Shell of moderate size, of very regular 
ovoid form, with the mouth projecting 
very 'little laterally ; the surface highly 

polished ... ... ... ... P. polita- 

B. Shell large, globose, with mouth 
projecting abruptly from the body- 
whorl ; the surface not highly polished P. angelica 

II. Shell with 4^ — 5J whorls. 

A. Shell somewhat elongate, of rather 
small size, with the upper end of the 
mouth considerably below the upper 
margin of the body- whorl. 

i. Mouth of shell more than twice as 
high as broad ; dark spiral bands 
well developed ... ... ... ... P. gracilis. 

ii. Mouth of shell not more than twice 
as high as broad ; dark spiral bands 
obsolete or absent ... ... ... P. conica. 

B. Shell globose, with the spire little exserted 
and the upper end of the mouth only 
a short distance below the upper margin 
of the body-whorl. 

i. Adult shell at least 70 mm. high, 
never very thick, without a raised 
and thickened peristome .-.. ... P. turbinis. 

ii. Adult shell between 50 and 60 ram. 
high, very thick, with a raised' and 
thickened peristome ...■* ... ... P. begini- 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OP SIAM. 7 

iii. Adult shell less than 40 mm. high, 
moderately thin, without a raised and 
thickened peristome ... ... ... P. pesmei. 

This key can be applied only to adult shells and it must be 
remembered in using it that the shells of Pachylabra experience a 
short period of active growth in the rainy season, in which the 
peripheral part of their mouth is absorbed and the shell temporarily 
assumes an immature appearance. For taxonomic purposes shells 
are best collected towards the end of the wet season or while the 
animal is in a comatose condition. 

Pachylabra polita (Deshayes) 

1884. Ampullaria polita, Nevill, Hand L'st Moll. Ind. Mus. II, 

p. 7 ( ? with var. compressus). 
1906. Ampullaria polita, Dautzenberg k Fischer, Journ. de Con- 

chyl. liv. p. 426 (? with var. major). 
1911. Pachylabra polita, Kobelt, op. cit., p. 82, pi. xxxviii, figs. 1-5. 

This is an unusually distinct and well-defined species, readily 
distinguished from all others by its regularly ovoid outline, in which 
(in ventral view) the projection of the mouth causes little interrup- 
tion. The spire is of considerable relative length, occupying about 
£ of the total height, and sharply conical in form. The shell is 
about 1 j-l| times as high as broad. There are 6£ whorls. The 
basal whorl of the spire is broad and swollen and the suture 
both above and below it is deeply impressed. The body-whorl is 
less globose than in most species. It is irregularly and narrowly 
cordiform, with the inner outline as seen in dorsal view very oblique 
and somewhat sinuate towards the anterior extremity, which is 
bluntly pointed. The suture is not oblique, except, in some shells, 
just above the body-whorl, where it is apt to change its course in such 
a way that the depth of the penultimate whorl 'becomes considerably 
Greater in its outer than in its inner half as seen in dorsal view. 

o 

The mouth is long and narrow and its main axis forms a very acute 
angle with that of the shell. It is pointed above and slightly 
introverted ; below it is narrowly rounded. The lip is sharp and the 
callus not strongly developed. The shell is imperforate or narrowly 
rimate and the columellar border is slightly expanded over the 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



8 DR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

umbilicus. The outer lip at the anterior end of the mouth is very 
slightly expanded. 

The external surface of the shell is highly polished and often 
has a malleated appearance due to relatively large but very shallow 
depressions arranged roughly in a spiral manner. Numerous 
minute longitudinal striae can be detected with the aid of a 
hand-lens. 

The external colour is pale olivaceous green, sometimes with 
a reddish tinge. Spiral bands are absent, but irregular black long- 
itudinal lines sometimes occur. The outer lip is sometimes black- 
ened externally. The interior of the shell is yellowish white and 
the periphery of the mouth is more or less infuscated. 

The operculum is thin, long and narrow, with the posterior 
extremity pointed and slightly introverted and the anterior extremi- 
ty narrowly rounded. The outer margin is evenly convex, the 
inner margin rather deeply concave in its posterior half, nearly 
straight anteriorly. The external surface is concave as a whole, the 
internal surface slightly convex. There is a well defined ridge on 
the inner border of the former, proceeding forwards from a 
point a little in front of the posterior extremity and gradually grow- 
ing broader until it reaches a point about two-thirds the distance 
from the posterior to the anterior extremity. The lines of growth 
are well-defined and regular and the epidermis thin and polished. 
The muscular scar on the internal surface is large and its smooth area 
relatively extensive. The sculpture of the border of the scar is 
minute and irregular and does not extend outwards over the whole 
border on the outer edge of the scar. On the inner edge the scar 
is defiued by a prominent ridge. The nacre is of a leaden grey tint. 

The following measurements are those, with the exception 
of the first shell, of specimens assigned by Nevill to his var. 
compressa. I have not the materia] to decide whether either this 
variety or Fischer and Dautzenberg's var. major is beyond the 
limits of individual variation. 

Measurements (in millimetres) and Proportions of Shells. 

Height • 75 61 55 

Maximum diameter ... ... 60 46 41 

JOTJRN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



55 


41 


40 


27 


21 


20 


1:1.25 


1:1.33 


1:1.35. 


1:2.03 


1:1.95 


1:2. 


1:1.36 


1:1.49 


1:1.37. 




1:2.19 


1:2.05. 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SlAM. 

Height of mouth (oblique) 

Maximum diameter of mouth 

Maximum diameter to height 

Maximum diameter to heigh tof 
mouth 

Mouth to height 

Max. diam. mouth to max. diam. ., 

These shells are all from Cambodia. Kobelt states that 
P. polita is the characteristic form of that country and of Cochin 
China. It is probably less common in Siam than the forms of 
P. turbinis, but has been recorded from Bangkok and Chiengmai. 

Pachylabra conica (Gray). 

1911. Pachylabra conica, Kobelt, oj). cit., p. 93, pi. si, figs. 1-5, 8. 9. 

In some respects the shell of this species resembles that of 
P. polita, but it is usually smaller and never has the same regular 
ovoid shape, highly polished surface or finished appearance. The 
mouth projects abruptly in ventral view and the whorls are more 
tumid, the suture more regularly oblique. The sculpture of the 
surface is also different, the longitudinal striae being much coarser 
and more irregular, fine longitudinal ridges being often present on 
the body-whorl and spiral, minutely interrupted lines also occur- 
ring in large numbers. The mouth is as a rule broader and more 
oblique and the spire blunter. 

The colour is dull olivaceous green or brown, occasionally 
with irregular longitudinal dark lines and usually with obsolete 
brownish spiral bands. The lip is very narrowly, if at all, blackened. 
The interior of the shell is ornamented with fairly conspicuous 
brownish spiral bands, which sometimes extend to the periphery of 
the lip, which is sometimes white. 

The operculum is relatively broader and shorter than that of 
P. polita, with a rather more regular ovoid outline. The inner 
border of the muscular scar is sometimes rather deeply sculptured 
in a concentric manner, as is shown in Kobelt's figure, but this is 
not a constant character. 

The radula closely resembles that of other species of 

VOL. IV, NO. !, 1920. 



10 DR NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

Pachylabra, a genus in which .specific differences are not strongly 
marked in the teeth. Each transverse row consists of seven teeth, 
two marginals and one lateral on each side of an unpaired 
central, giving the dental formula 2. 1. 1. 1. 2. The central 
is transverse and about twice as broad as high. It bears at either 
side of its base a fairy prominent almost vertical fold and its free 
margin is armed with five denticulations, all of which are sharply 
pointed, while the central denticulation is much larger than the 
others and extends downwards nearly to the base of the tooth. 
The lateral is comparatively stout, and its free margin resembles 
that of the central. The marginals have their inner margin dis- 
tinctly S-shaped. They each bear three long, pointed denticulations, 
which in the outermost tooth are subequal. The teeth are all com- 
paratively small. 

Measurements (in millimetres) and Proportions 
of Shells. 

Height ... 24 

Maximum diameter ... 35 
Height of mouth ... 30 

Maximum diameter of 

mouth ... 17 15 17 14 14 14 

Maximum diameter to 

height ...1:1.2 1:1.2 1:1.2 1:1.17 1:1.25 1:1.07 

Mouth to height ... 1 : 1.2 1 : 1.37 1 : 1.51 1 : 1.46 1 : 1.56 1 : 1.28 

Maximum diameter to 

height of mouth ... 1:1.76 1:2 1:1.59 1:1.71 1:1.64 1:1.64 

Maximum diameter of 

mouth to that of shell ... 1 : 2.05 1: 2: 44 1:2 1 : 2.14 1:2 1 : 2.28 

The average proportion of maximum diameter to height of 
shell is, therefore, in this series 1 : 1.18, or considerably more than 
£ ; the average proportion of the height of the mouth to the height 
of the shell 1 : 1.43 ; that of the maximum diameter of the mouth 
to its height 1 : 1.72, considerably more than one half; that of the 
width of the mouth to the total width slightly less than half. 

The series of shells of which these measurements are given is 
from Akyab in Arakan. The species is the dominant one in LoAver 

JOUKN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



41 


41 


35 


35 


32 


34 


34 


30 


28 


30 


30 


27 


24 


23 


2i 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM. 11 

Burma and its range extends to China. Blanford records it from 
Pitsanuloke. 

Pachylabra gracilis (Lea). 

1856. Ampullaria gracilis, (Lea), Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

VII, p.110. 
? date. Ampullaria gracilis, id., Ohs. Genus Unio, etc. XI, p.70, 

pi. xxii, fig. 1. 

Lea's figure and descriptions are probably based on 
a young shell, and the only specimen I have seen also seems 
young. The adult shell may be identical with one of those figured 
by Kobelt (op. cit., pi. xxxvii, fig. 4) as shells of P. dalyi ; but this 
figure certainly does not represent either that race or any other of 
P. turbinis. The specimen I have examined resembles a young 
shell of P. conica, but is longer in proportion, with a longer and 
narrower mouth, a more exserted spire, a more even surface and 
more conspicuous external spiral bands. The lip is also more 
sinuous and more produced at the anterior end. The sculpture con- 
sists of fine longitudinal ridges with obsolete longitudinal and spiral 
striae. 

The following are the measurements and proportions of this 
shell : — height 35, maximum diameter 29, height of mouth 25, 
maximum diameter of mouth 11 mm. Proportion of maximum 
diameter to height of shell 1 : 1.2, height of mouth to that of shell 
1 : 1.4, maximum diameter to height of mouth 1 : 2.26, maximum 
diameter of mouth to that of shell 1:2.63. 

This shell is labelled "Siam" and the species was described 
without any more precise locality. Blanford records it from Lam- 
pun in the northern part of the Kingdom. 

Pachylabra angelica, sp. nov. 
The shell is large, of moderate thickness and in shape inter- 
mediate between P. polita (Desh.) and P. turbinis (Lea); it is much 
more globose than the former but has a whorl more than the latter, 
than which also it is slightly more elongate. Its total height is a 
little greater than its maximum diameter. There are 6£ whorls, 
and the spire, though almost acuminate, has a globose appearance 
towards the base, with somewhat swollen whorls. The extent to 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



12 OR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

which it is exserted differs iu different individuals, but it is never 
so long as that of P. yyolita or P. conica, or so short as that of most 
forms of P. turbinis. The upper surface of all the whorls is 
slightly, obliquely flattened, but they are never angulate or carinate. 
The suture is impressed. The body-whorl is broad but oblique. 
The mouth of the shell is large and a little less than twice as high 
as broad, but the upper extremity is separated from the upper marg- 
gin of the body- whorl by a distance considerably greater than the 
height of the spire. The main axis of the mouth forms an acute 
angle with that of the shell. The peristome is continuous and the 
callus well developed, but not prominent, in complete shells. The 
upper extremity of the lip is thickened at its junction with the 
shell and there is a rather broad thickened ridge just inside its 
outer margin, which is itself sharp. The lower or anterior margin 
is very little expanded or everted. The shell is narrowly umbilicate 
and the expanded callus is reflected over the umbilicus. 

The external surface is not strongly polished. It is sculptur- 
ed with numerous fine, low, close-set longitudinal ridges, some of 
which (set apart at fairly regular intervals) have a broader and 
flatter appearance than the others. The ridges are crossed by still 
more numerous minute, decussate or guttate spiral striae, and the 
surface has a distinctly sculptured look to the naked eye, at any 
rate on the body-whorl. 

The external colour is uniform olivaceous, in some shells 
with a rather pale greenish and in others with a dark almost 
purplish tint. The internal surface is greenish white in pale shells 
and the periphery is faintly stained with pale yellow, the lip being 
sometimes very narrowly bordered with black. Darker shells are 
deep purple internally, with a faint indication of spiral bands, which 
are probably quite visible in young shells. Adult shells of this 
type have a broad white border to the lip and columella. 

The operculum is thick and heavy. Its outline is irregularly 
pyriform, the external margin being strongly convex and the upper 
part of the inner margin deeply concave. The posterior extremity 
is bluntly pointed. The external surface is irregularly concave as a 
whole, and has the growth lines delicate but distinct. The 

JOUKN. NAT. HIST. S0C. SUM. 



JOURNAL NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. VOL. IV. 



Plate II. 




Q 

E 
< 

D 

< 
m 

< 
en 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Radular teeth of Siamese species of Pachylabra all x 75. 

Fig. 1. Pachylabra pesmei (MorLet). 

Fig. 2. Pachylabra conica (Gray). 

Fig. 3. Pachylabra begini (Morlet). 

Fig. 4. Pachylabra turbinis var. subampidlacea, (Ne villi 

Fig. 5. Pachylabra angelica, sp. no v. 

Fig. 6. Living animal of P. angelica as seen from below, 
e = eye ; e' = eye -stalk ; i — foot ; m = mouth ; o 
operculum ; t. = tentacle ; t' = oral process ; s. 
siphon ; 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SUM, VOL. IV. 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM. 13 

epidermis is moderately thick and not highly polished ; it is of a deep 
brownish colour. The nacre is livid greyish stained with pink. The 
muscular scar is large, its smooth area is long, narrow and prominent. 
The sculptured border is broad and shallow except at the outer 
anterior extremity, where there is a distinct pit. The sculpture of 
this border is obscure and shallow. 

The exposed parts of the animal are of an almost uniform 
sooty black colour. The foot is large, narrowly cordate and bluntly 
pointed behind. The tentacles are long and slender and the oral 
processes taper distinctly to their extremity, which is filiform. The 
siphon is short and broad. 

The jaws are stout and strongly chitinizjd ; each has a single 
projection on its free edge. The radular teeth are also strongly 
chitinized. They have the usual formula (2. 1. 1. 1. 2.) and closely 
resemble those of P. conica except that they are larger and stouter, 
with broader denticulations. The central is 2±- times as broad as 
high, and the latero-basal folds on its disk are very poorly develop- 
ed. The distal part of the marginals is longer and stouter, and 
the outer denticulations of the outermost tooth is much smaller 
than the middle one. The most noteworthy radular character is the 
large size of the teeth. 

Measurements (in millimetres) and Proportions of Shells. 

Height 75 73 - 65 

Maximum diameter 65 66 60 

Height of mouth (oblique) 58 55 51 
Maximum diameter 

_ of mouth 31 31 27 
Maximum diameter 

to height 1:1.15 1:1.1 1:108 
Maximum diameter 

to height of mouth 1:1.87 1:1.77 1:1.9 

Mouth to total height 1:1.29 1:1.32 1:1.27 
Max. diam. mouth to total 

max. diam. 1:2.09 1:2.12 1:2.22 

The width of the shell is thus slightly less than the height, 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



14 DR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

and that of the mouth a trifle more than ± of its length; the height 
of the mouth a little less than | that of the shell, and the width of 
the mouth just less than half of that of the shell. 

Type-specimens. No. M. -— Z. S. I. (Ind. Mus.) 

This species is apparently the common one in the rice-fields 
round Bangkok. Dr. Malcolm Smith sent me several indivi- 
duals found active in ponds in July. They arrived in Calcutta 
by post from Bangkok with the shell tightly closed by the oper- 
culum. They were placed in a dish of water and after about an 
hour the operculum gradually opened. The animal, however, remain- 
ed very si uggish for the rest of the day and did not begin to feed 
until next morning. When they arrived the lung was evidently 
full of air as they floated in water. Dr. Smith tells me that the 
eggs are conspicuous in the rice-fields in the winter months. 

I am indebted to Dr. Baini Prashad for the following parti- 
culars of the anatomy : — 

"The animal of this species is on the whole of a much more 
massive type than of the common P. globosa of Bengal. The fol- 
lowing anatomical points are interesting from a comparative point of 
view. 

" Both the cephalic and the true pair of tentacles are long, 
when fully extended the true tentacles are at least two and a half 
times as long as the cephalic ones. Both pairs of tentacles are 
fairy thick at the base but taper to a point very gradually. The 
eye-stalks are small and thick. Both the nuchal lobes are well 
developed. The right lobe, though not forming an actual siphon as 
in Vivipara, forms a fairy deep groove. The left, or the respiratory 
siphon of the family, forms a comparatively broad and thick res- 
piratory tube, slightly different in size and proportions from that of 
P. globosa but much more so when compared with that of 
Ampullaria insularum d'Orbigny, as figured by Fischer and 
Bouvier. ] The margin of the mantle is very thick. The osphradium 
is large, and owing to the large development of tissue at its base may 
be described as pedunculate. The lung is a copious structure with a 

1 .Town, de Conchyl. XL, pi. iii, fig. 15. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. S0C. SUM. 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM- 15 

large broad opening. The lamellae of the gills also are well deve- 
loped leaf-like structures. The ridge separating the branchial from 
the lung portion of the respiratory cavity is particularly thick in 
its anterior portion. The rectum is a very thick tube and the open- 
ing of the anus is large. The sacs for the copulatory organs are 
well developed. 

" The buccal mass is a massive structure with well developed 
salivary glands lying just posterior to it ; the glands of the two 
sides are unequal, that of the right side is larger than that of the 
left, and is placed a little in front of it. The mouth is a large 
vertical opening with thick lips on its two sides. The jaws are 
large with a single cutting tooth developed on each. The radula and 
the cartilaginous flaps on its sides are both brownish in colour. 
The stomach has a small caecum. 

" There is nothing special to note regarding the vascular and 
the excretory systems. The ovary is large and cut up into a 
number of lobes. The albumen gland also is a large structure. The 
male organs are similar to those of P. globosa," 

Pachylabra turbinis (Lea). 

1856. Ampullaria turbinis, Lea, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 

VII, p. 110. 
1860. Ampullaria celebensis, v. Martens (nee Quoy & Gaimard), 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 12. 
1863. Ampullaria turbinis, Morelet, ' Ser. Gonchyl. Ill, p. 288. 
? date Ampullaria turbinis, Lea, Obs. Genus TJnio, etc., XI, p. 70, 

pi. xxii, fig. 2. 
1884. Ampidlaria turbinis and var. subglobosa, Nevill, Rand List 

Moll. Lid. Mus. II, p. 6. 

1904. Ampullaria turbinis, Fischer & Dautzenberg, Et. div. Miss. 

Pavie Indo-Ghine III, p. 425. 

1905. Ampullaria turbinis and var. erythrocheila, Dautzenberg k, 

Fischer, Journ. de Gonchyl. LIII, p. 427. 
1911. Pachylabra turbinis, Kobelt (in part), op. cit. , supra, p. 78, 
pl.xxxvii, fig. 3. 

Lea's English description of the species, which seems to be 

the dominant one in Siam, is as follows : — 

" Shell turbinate, yellowish green, transversely banded, rather 

thick, scarcely perforate, smooth ; spire very much depressed : 

sutures slightly impressed; whorls about five, very convex; 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1!>20. 



16 DR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

aperture very large, elongately ovate, brownish and much 
banded within ; outer lip acute ; columella very much incurv- 
ed and thickened ". 

"Diam. 2.36, Length 2.46 inches". 

Several local races are found in different parts of Siam and 
the adjacent countries and it is improbable that all the references 
given above refer to the forma typical. It will be well, therefore, 
to give a new description of this form. 

The shell is large, globose, of moderate thickness. There 
are 4^ whorls but the apex is often eaten away. The total height 
is the same as, or practically the same as, the maximum diameter. 
The spire is depressed and flattened at the base. It j>rojects very 
little, but is somewhat variable in its exact proportions. The 
upper surface of all the whorls is slightly flattened, but they are 
never augulate or carinate. The suture is moderately impressed. 
The body-whorl is very broad and not very oblique. The mouth of 
the shell is large and nearly or quite twice as high as broad. Its 
upper extremity is separated from that of the body-whorl by a 
distance distinctly greater than the length of the spire. The 
umbilicus is very narrow and is more or less completely concealed by 
the expanded columellar callus. In shells that have finished their 
growth-period the callus is well developed and thick but not promi- 
nent. There is a low, narrow rather indistinct thickening of the 
shell inside the lip, which is sharp. This thickening is most 
strongly developed in the upper angle. The lower extremity of 
the mouth is very little everted. 

The surface of the shell has a smooth and polished but not 
brilliant appearance. The sculpture is much like that of P. angelica 
but more irregular and with the thicker longitudinal ridges coarser 
and the transverse striae less well developed. 

The colouration of the shell is variable. Young specimens 
are spirally banded and the bands may persist to some extent in the 
adult or subadult. One of the shells assigned by Nevill to his var. sub- 
globosa has traces of them. In fully adult shells there are narrow 
longitudinal dark lines, sometimes set at very regular intervals. 

JOURX. XAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



66 




61 


65 




57 


54 




51 


27 




26 


1:1 


1 


: 1.07 


1:2 


1 


:1.96 


1.22 


1: 


1. 2 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAIVL 17 

Measurements (in millimetres) and Proportions of Shells. 

Height 70 

Maximum diameter 70 

Height of mouth 57 

Maximum diameter of mouth 31 

Maximum diameter to height 1 : 1 

Maximum diameter to height 

of mouth 1 : 1.84 

Mouth to height 1 : 1.22 

Max. diam. of mouth 

to maximum diameter 1 : 2.22 1 : 2.41 1 : 2.19 

The height and the maximum diameter of the shell are thus 
practically the same, the mouth nearly twice as high as broad and 
r ather more than •£ as high as the whole shell, which is from 2-=- 
to 2| as broad as it is high. 

There is no information available as to the precise habitat of 
this race. Lea merely says "Siam," and Nevill's specimens, with 
one exception, appear to have been originally labelled "Java", but 
he was probably right in believing that they were of Siamese 
origin. There is a young shell from Cambodia in the collection of 
the Indian Museum, but whether it belongs to this race is uncertain. 
It is considerably broader in proportion than young shells of the 
race subampullacea. 

Race dalyi (Blanford). 

1902. Ampullaria dalyi, Blanford, Proc. Malac, Soc. London, Y, 

p. 281, pi. viii, fig. 1. 
1911. Pachylabra dalyi, Kobelt (in part), op. cit., supra, p. 80, pi. 

xxxix, fig 1. 
1911. Pachylabra turbinis, id., ibid., pi, xxxvii, figs. 1,2. 

I think that Blanford was right in. suggesting that this was 

only a race of* P. turbinis. The shell is distinguished by its 

coarser, thicker, still more globose character and larger maximum 

size. The upper part of the mouth projects less in ventral view, 

but its maximum diameier is greater, and the base of the body-whorl 

is channelled just below the botly-whorl. The shape of the spire 

varies considerably. In some specimens it is considerably more 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 102O. 



1$ DR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

globose than" in the forma typica, but in others it is not so, while in 
one shell it is actually depressed as a whole and its suture is deeply 
and broadly canalized. 

The surface of the shell is dull and the sculpture is coarser 
and at the same time more regular than that of the typical P. turb- 
inis, though similar in general character. 

The colour is olivaceous brown externally with fairly regular 
curved longitudinal dark lines. The interior of the shell is uniform 
white in the specimens I have examined, but these are all "dead". 

The operculum is thick and heavy in these specimens and 
incrassated somewhat at the two extremities. The scar is large and 
its smooth area extensive ; the sculptured border of fairly uniform 
width, rather shallow and irregularly and by no means deeply 
sculptured. 

Measurements (in millimetres) and Proportions of Shells. 
Height 

Maximum diameter 
Height of mouth 
Maximum diameter of mouth. . . 
Maximum diameter to height... 
Maximum diameter to height 

of mouth 
Height of mouth to height . . . 
Maximum diameter of mouth 

to maximum diameter ... 1:2. 13 1:2 1:2. 25 

This race was described from Northern Siam. The series I 
have examined is from Pitsanuloke. 

Kace subampullacea Nevill. 
1884. Ampullaria turbinis var. subampullacea, Nevill, opcit., supra, 

p. 6. 
1891. Ampullaria turbinis var. subampullacea, Mollendorf, Proc. 

Zoo. Soc. London, p. 346. 
This race has the shell higher and less transverse, with the 
mouth higher narrower and more oblique, and the spire more promi- 
nent and pointed than the typical form. There are Si. whorls. The 
shell is not so thick and globose as in the race dalyi but rather 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. S'OC. SIAM. 



89 




74 




67 


81 




62 




63 


62 




55 




52 


38 




31 




28 


1:1.1 


1: 


1.19 


1: 


1.06 


1 : 1.63 


1 


: 1.77 


1 


: 1.86 


1 : 1.46 


1 


:1.34 


1 


:1.29 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM. 19 

thicker than that of the forma typica. The spiral bands are less 
obsolete, especially on the internal surface, than in either, the lip is 
paler in colour than in the latter and there is a more definite thick- 
ening just inside its margin. 

The operculm is rather thin and the smooth area of the 
scar is relatively large. 

The radula is normal. The teeth aL'e large. The central 
tooth is rather more than 2\ times as broad as high. Its lower 
angles are produced and sharp, the folds on its disk triangular and 
prominent ; the central denticulation does not reach the base of the 
tooth and has only two well-developed smaller denticulations on 
each side. The other teeth are broad at the base. The lateral has 
the central denticulation as broad at the base as long and two small 
denticulations at either side, The denticulations of the marginals 
are long, sharp and unequal. 

Measurements (in millimetres) and Proportions of Shells. 



Height 




76 


73 


81 


73 


Maximum diameter 




70 


70 


77 


70 


Height of mouth 




61 


58 


64 


61 


Maximum diameter of mouth 




30 


30 


31 


31 


Maximum diameter to height 


1: 


1.08 


1 : 1.04 


1 : 1.05 


1 ; 1.04 


Maximum diameter to height 












of mouth 


1: 


:2.03 


1:1.93 


1:2.06 


1:1.97 


Mouth to height ... 


1 


:1.24 


1:1.26 


1:1.26 


1:1.2 


Maximum diameter of mouth 












to maximum diameter 


1 


:2.33 


1:2.33 


1:2.61 


1 : 2.35 


The height is thus si: 


Lgh 


tly greater tlu 


m the 


maximum 



diameter, the height of the mouth about twice its maximum diame- 
ter. The height of the shell is about 1£ the height of the mouth 
and its maximum diameter 1^ to a little over 11 the maximum 
diameter of the mouth. 
Type-specimen. No. 2427 M ( Z. 8. I. ). 

This is evidently the Malayan race of the species, but its range 
extends northwards into Peninsular Siam. It was originally des- 
cribed from Perak, is stated by Mollendorf to be common in the Malay 

VOL. IV, NO. 1. 1920, 



20 DR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

Peninsula, and is the form found in ponds and sluggish streams in 
the province of Singgora. 

The eggs are laid about Christmas or the beginning of the 
year, as soon as the rains cease. They are exposed some feet above 
the surface of the water on tree-trunks, posts or the stems of reeds, 
and are formed into oval masses about the size of a small hen's egg. 
As they are of a pure white colour they are very conspicuous. The 
individual eggs are about 6 mm. in diameter but are pressed so 
closely together that they are usualh^ distorted. Only 
those in the centre of the mass are fertile or contain yolk, those 
that cover it externally being reduced to dry scale-like bodies, 
which protect the true eggs. The scale-like aborted eggs are absent 
from the base of the mass where it is in contact with the surface to 
which it is attached. In spite of the protection thus afforded, the 
fertile eggs are. sometimes parasitized by a small wasp. The var. 
lacustris has the same habits of oviposition and often attaches its 
egg-masses to limestone cliffs. Whether other Siamese species or 
varieties produce egg-masses of the same type I do not know. In 
the common Indian P. globosa and P. carinata the eggs are laid in 
a shallow depression in damp ground at the edge of water. They 
form a feebly coherent mass and are all normally constituted and of 
a spherical shape. In Bengal the eggs are laid after the rains 
break, about July ; but in Madras I have found them rather later 
in the year. 

Race lacustris, nov. 

I propose this name for a form found at the edge of the 
inner or freshwater region of the Tale Sap or Inland Sea of 
Singgora. The spire is still smaller (and flat at the apex) and the 
body-whorl still broader and more oblique than in shells of the var. 
subampullacea from the same district. The surface is also more 
irregular and more frequently eaten away. The colour of the shell 
is also as a rule darker and rougher, but this majr be due to the 
more frequent growth of minute. algae on the surface. 

Measurements (in millimetres) and Proportions of Shells. 
Height ... 78 75 67 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. S0C. SIAM. 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM. 21 



Maximum diameter 




74 




73 




65 


Height of mouth 




64 




65 




57 


Maximum diameter of mouth 




32 




32 




30 


Maximum diameter to height 


1 


1.04 


1 : 


1.03 


1 


1.03 


Maximum diameter to 














height of mouth 


1 


2 


1 


. 2 


1 


19 


Mouth to height 


1 


:1.22 


1 


:1.12 


1 


:1.17 


Max. diam. of mouth to max. diam. 


1 


: 2.31 


1 


:2.28 


1 


:27 



By actual measurement, therefore, the shell does not differ 
materially from that of the var. subampullaeea, but it is outlines 
rather than actual measurements that are of importance. 

Type-specimen No. ■ ° M. (Z.S.I.) 

Pachylabra begini (Morlet). 

1889. Ampullaria legini, Morlet, Journ. de Conchyl. XXXVII, 

p. 184, pi. viii, fig. 1. 
190.1. Ampullaria legini, Pilsbry, Proc. Ac. N~at. Sci. Philadelphia, 

III, p. 189. 
1904 Ampullaria legini, Morlet, Et. div Miss." Pavie Indo-Chine, 

III, p. 369, pi. xx, fig. 2. 
1911. Pachylabra legini, Kobelt, op. cit., supra, p. 87, pi. xxxv, 
fig. 4. 

Though closely allied to P- turbinis, tins species is smaller, 
has a thicker shell and is readily distinguished by the structure of 
its mouth. The umbilicus is also more open. The peculiarity of 
the mouth of the shell is due to the great development and promi- 
nent character of the peristome produced by the thickening and 
prominence of the columellar callus and border and the thickening 
of the lip just inside its margin. The lip is somewhat produced and 
everted at its lower extermity. 

The surface of the shell is rather coarsely sculptured, but 
varies in this respect. In old shells it has, even to the naked eye, a 
reticulate appearance, at any rate on the body-whorl, owing to the 
intersection of blunt longitudinal and spiral ridges. The latter are 
particularly well developed. Minute spiral striae also occur, but are 
often hard to detect. The shell seems to be peculiarly liable to 
erosion both of the spire and of the body-whorl. 

The colour varies. In one fresh shell from the Korat district 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



22 DR- NELSON ANNANDALE ON 

it is pale fulvous with a pinkish tinge and blotched with white ; but 
this shell appears to be diseased, though the animal in it seems to 
have been quite healthy. Morlet's description gives the colour as 
greenish yellow with several obscure spiral bands ; the mouth of a 
brownish tint with several bands inside, the columellar margin 
yellowish. Most of the shells I have seen are blackish or 
olivaceous brown, sometimes with indistinct darker spiral bands. 
These shells have the peristome reddish and the interior of a dull 
purple tint. 

The operculum is moderately thick and is less asymmetrical 
than that of some speceis. The posterior extremity is blunt. Both 
extremities are somewhat thickened. The external surface is only 
slightly concave. The smooth area of the scar is narrow and the 
sculptured border broad and shallow, except at the anterior extre- 
mity, where it is rather deeply hollowed. The sculpture is obscure 
and irregular. 

The radula is characterized by the breadth of the larger den- 
ticulations of the teeth. The central is three times as broad as deep 
and its central denticulation does not quite reach its base. The 
latero-basal folds are well-developed, narrow and pointed, the lateral 
denticulations ill-defined. In the lateral tooth only one lateral 
denticulation can be distinguished on each side, while in the 
marginals the outer denticulation is relatively small. 

Measurements (in millemetres) and Proportions of Shells. 

Height 

Maximum diameter 

Height of mouth 

Maximum diameter of mouth 

Maximum diameter to height 

Maximum diameter to height 

of mouth 
Mouth to height 
Maximum diameter of mouth 

to maximum diameter ... 1 : 2.5 1 : 2.16 1 : 2.25 1 : 2.16 

The shell is* a little higher than broad and its mouth is 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



48 


45 


41 


30 


50 


40 


36 


27 


35 


33 


32 


23 


20 


18.5 


16 


12.5 


1:0.96 


1:1.12 


1:1.14 


1:1.11 


1:1.75 


1:1.8 


1:2 


1:2.16 


1 :1.37 


1 : 1.36 


1:1.28 


1:1.3 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM. 23 

from 1J to twice as high as broad. The total height is fromli to 
If that of the mouth and the maximum diameter is about twice 
that of the mouth. 

The species is said to be common on the lower Mekong and 
in Cambodia. Mr. Boden Kloss found it abundant in rice-fields at 
Lat Bua Kao near Korat. 

Pachylabra pesmei (Morlet). 

1889. Avipidlaria pesmei, Morlet, op. cit, p. 185 pi. viii, fig. 2. 
1904. Ampullaria pesmei, id., op', cit., p. 369, pi. xx, fig. 12. 
1911. Pachylabra pesmei, Kobelt, op. cit., p. 88, pi. xxxv, fig. 8. 

P. pes7nei is one of the smallest species in the genus. It 
has a thinner shell than P. begin i, to which it is closely related, 
and the peristome, though complete, has not the same prominent 
character. The umbilicus also is much narrower. The colour of 
the shell varies. In Morlet's type it had a curious bluish pink 
tinge. In the shells I have seen it is rather pale olivaceous brown 
with or without rather faint spiral bands externally. The interior 
of the shell is yellowish with a tinge of purple and marked with 
dark purple spiral bands, which are sometimes confluent and become 
more conspicuous on the interior of the lip. The peristome is yel- 
lowish. The external surface has a rather high polish and the 
sculpture resembles that of the shell of P. begini but is finer. 

The operculum is thinner and more pointed posteriorly than 
that of P. begini, and the sculpture of the border of the scar has on 
the inner margin of the smooth area a concentric arrangement. 

The radular teeth are relatively large. The central is more 
than three times as broad as high and the cusps of all the teeth are 
narrower in proportion than in P. begini. 

Measurements (in millimetres) and Proportions of shells. 

Height 32 30 31 32 31 

Maximum diameter 30 27 28 29 28 

Height of mouth 24 21 23.5 23 23 
Maximum diameter of 

mouth 15 12 11 13 12 

VOL. IV. NO. 1, 1920. 



24 DR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON ' 

Maximum diameter to 

height 1:1.07 1:1.11 1:1.11 1:1.1 1:1.11 

Maximum diameter to 

height of mouth 1:1.6 1:1.75 2.14 1:1.77 1:1.91 

Mouth to height 1 : 1.33 1 : 1.43 1 : 1.32 1 : 1.38 1 : 1.39 

Maximum diameter of mouth to 

maximum diameter 1:2 1 : 2.25 1 : 2.54 1 : 2.23 1 : 2.33 

The shell is slightly higher than broad and the mouth is 

from 1« to twice as high as broad. The total height is about If 

that of the mouth and the maximum diameter of the shell is from 

twice to 2* 7 times that of the mouth. 

The species was described from Pnom-Penh in Cambodia. I 
have examined specimens (collected by Mr. Boden Kloss) from the 
island of Koh Samesan off Cape Liant in the Gulf of Siam. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



25 



NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FORMED BY MR. E. G. 
HERBERT, C. M. 2. S., M. B. O- U. 

By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.l.s., f.z.s., c.f.a.o.u., m.b.o.u. 
(Continued from page 443, Vol. IIIj. 

The present part concludes the catalogue of Mr. Herbert's 
collection of birds. The number of species and sub-species enumer- 
ated is 295 and of these 11 are new forms, whilst many others 
have been now. recorded for the first time from Siam. 

The forms described as new are : — Eupetes maerocercus 
griseiventris ; Pomatorhinus olivaceus siamensis ; P. nuchalis 
klossi ; Stachyridopsis rufifrons obscura ; Cyanoderma erythrop- 
terum sordida ; Dicrurus leucophaeus disturbuns ; Prinia inornata 
herberti ; Grauccdus macei siamensis ; Oyornis magnirostris 
coerulifrons ; Thereiceryx lineatus intermedins ; Alcedo meninting 
scintillans. 

In addition to the above I have also found it necessary to 
describe many new forms from other parts of the Oriental Region } 
whilst comparing various series in comparison with those contained 
in this collection. 

Unfortunately, as Mr. Herbert has explained in the first 
part of this catalogue, I have been considerably handicapped by 
my want of knowledge of the local geography, and have sometimes 
been led astray by the similarity, or mis-spelling, of names from 
widely different localities. Such deductions as are wrong on this 
account - or any other - 1 propose, if our Editors will kindly allow 
me, to correct fully in a further note on Mr. Herbert's collection. 
In this I shall also be able to deal with those points in which 
Messrs. Robinson and Kloss have been unable to agree with my 
conclusions. 

There are, however, one or two mistakes it may be as well 
to correct at once. 

Alcippe phwocephala davisoni Harington. This is quite a 
good sub-species. It is true that the markings of the head are of 
no use as a character in differentiating between A. p. magnirostris 
and A. p. davisoni, but the tint of the upper plumage is quite 
distinct and suffices to distinguish between the two. Since I wrote 

VOL. IV. NO. 1, 1920. 



26 MR. E. C. STUART BAKER ON 

the early part of this catalogue I have had more material for 
comparison, and must therefore alter my original opinion. 

Dicrurus annectens siamensis Kloss. The large-billed bird 

obtained in Tung Song, Peninsular Siam, should have been retained 

under the name of Dicrurus annectens annectens, but was omitted 

by a slip. This adds another to the total of species and sub-species 

described. 

STRIGIDM. 

-f 218. TYTO CANDIDA. 

Strix Candida, Tickell, J. A. S. B. vol. II, p. 572 (1833). 

? Krabin, C. Siam, 2.11.15. 

A beautiful specimen in perfect plumage. This will almost 
certainly prove to be a resident breeding species, and it will be 
interesting to know when it lays in Siam. In India, Assam and 
Burma the breeding season varies greatly : in some parts the eggs 
are only found in December and January, in others during, before, or 
after the rains, and in some parts in October. 
+ 219. Strix seloputo. 

Strix seloputo, Horsf., Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 140 (1821). 
2 Klong Wang Hip, P. Siam, 8.10.15. 

-j- 220. Strix indrani maingayi. 

Syrnium maingayi, Hume, Str. Feath. vi, p. 27. 

2 Tung Song, P. Siam, 24.9.15. 

It is with some hesitation that I assign this specimen to the 

Malayan form, but it seems on the whole to be nearer this than 

newarense. 

221. Bubo coromandus klossi. 

Bubo coromandus klossi, Robinson, Journ. Fed. Mai. States Mus. iv, 
p. 246 (1910). 

6 Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam, December, 1915. 

- 222. Otus scops MALAYANUS. 

Scops malayanus, Hay, Madr. Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii., pt. 2, p. 147 
(1845). 

c Krabin, C. Siam, 11.11.15. 

This beautiful little Scops is, as would be expected, of the 

Malayan form. 

JOUttN. -NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FROM SIAM. 27 

-^223. Otus bakkamcena lettia. 

Scops lettia, H<>dgs., As. Res. xix, p. 176 (1836). 
6 Samray, Bangkok, C. Siam, 6.3.16. 

This specimen is a large bird with the bases of the toes 
feathered as in the Northern Burmese and Himalayan form. 
+ 224. Carine brama pulchra. 

Athene pulchra, Hume, Str. Feath. i, p. 469 (1873). 
2 6 Samkok, C. Siam, 22.6.15, and 17.3.16. 
? Krabin, C. Siam, 5.11.15. 

These birds are all quite typical pulchra, showing well the 
special features noted by Hume. There seem to be three fairly 
well defined races of Carine brama, i.e., 

Carine brama brama. Lighter coloured and larger ; wing 
147-168 mm. Found over the whole of India north of the Deccan ; 
Assam and North Chin Hills. 

Carine brama 'pulchra. Darker and smaller, wing 131-144 
mm. Here and there large individuals occur, and there is a speci- 
men in the British Museum from Siam with a wing of 154 mm. 
and one other from Tounghoo with a wing of no less than 157 mm. 

The alleged difference between brama and pulchra in the 
spotting of the head appears to be entirely individual and not spe- 
cific or sub-specific. The tails of the latter are, however, more de- 
finitely and more regularly barred than those of the former. 

This form inhabits Central and South Burma, the Malay 
Peninsula (but to what extent south is not yet recorded), Siam, 
Yunnan, Southern Shan States and ? Cambodia. 

Carine brama fryi. Darker and larger. Wing 152-167 
mm. (one 141 mm., probably juv.) This bird was described by me 
in the* Bull. B.O.C., ccxlvi, p. 60, 1919. The form is found in 
practically the whole of South India as far north as the Deccan, and 
I have seen typical specimens from Mysore, Travancore, Neilgher- 
ries, Madras and the Deccan. 

-*- 225. Glaucidium cuculoides cuculoides. 
Athene cuculoides, Vigors, P.Z.S., p. 8 (1830). 
9 Chan Teuk, E. Siam, 15.8.15. 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



28 MR. E. C. STUART BAKER ON 

S Pak Jong, E. Siam, 17.8.15. 

4 6 1 9 Maprit, P. Siam, 31.10.15 to 7.1.16. 

The wings of these birds are all under 147 mm. (5.8 in.), 
and do not approach in size the larger Chinese form whiteleyi. The 
colour of the upper parts of the specimens in this series varies 
greatly, as it does over the whole of its range. Nos. 1 and 2 are 
extremely rufous, whilst of the Maprit birds one is nearly pure grey 
(specimen No. 4J1.15), and others again vary between the two 
extremes. 

ACOIPITRES. 

226. Spizaetus alboniger. 

Nigaitus alboniger, Blyth, J. A. S. B., xiv, p. 178 (1845). 

6 Tung Song, P. Siam, 23.9.15. < 

A magnificent specimen of this most beautiful Eagle, whose 
colour alone assuredly warrants its being placed in a separate genus 
to the brown eagles of India and Burma to which the name 
Spizaehis properly applies. 

^227. Spilornis cheela rutherfordi. 

Spilornis rutherfordi, Swinhoe, Ibis, p. 85 (1870), 
9 Tong Song, P. Siam, 26.9.15. 

This is a very small specimen, and possibly has been wrongly 
sexed by the native collector, reliable as he seems to have been in 
practically every other case. The wing measures only 378 mm. 
228. BUTASTUR INDICUS. 

Falco indicus, GmeL, Sy:»t. Nat, i, p. 264 (1788), 

9 Krabin, C. Siam, 1.11.15. 

It is not yet known whether this fine bird breeds in any of 
the Central Chinese mountains, but in Siam it is only a winter 
visitor. 

-f-229. HaLIASTUR INDUS INDUS. 

Falco Indus, Bodcl., Tab. PI. Enl., p. 25 (1783). 

6 Bangkok, 30. 6. 15. 

d juv. c? Sansep, Bangkok, 4. 7. 15. 

The <S juv. is in quite young plumage, showing no -chestnut 
below, but with the tail and upper tail-coverts more or less suffused 
with this colour. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FROM SIAM. 29 

Mr. W. L. Sclater, who is working through the Raptores in 
the British Museum, has very kindly gone with me through the 
birds of that order represented in this collection. Of Haliastur 
indus, he only admits three races, -Indus, which is found throughout 
India to Malaya and Siam, intermedins from the Islands, and 
gerrenera from further East. 

4-230. MlLVUS GOVINDA GOVINDA. 
Milvus govinda, Sykes, P. Z, S,, p. 81 (1832). 
This bird appears to be a typical govinda ; it has not a trace 
of the white patch under the wing, and the wing itself only 
measures 436 mm. 

/ 231. Elanus (leruleus. 

Falco cceruleus, Hume, Str. Feath. ii, p. 325 (1874). 
6 Sansep, Bangkok, 4. 7. 15. 

-^232. ASTUR BADIUS POLIOPSIS. 
Micronisus poliopsis, Hume, Str. Feath. ii, p. 325 (1874). 
$ Krabin, C. Siam, 30.10.15. 

-H233. Astur SOLOENSTS. 
Falco soloensis, Horsf., Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 137 (1821) . 
d Hup Bon, S. E. Siam, 18.7.15. 

-f- 234. LOPIIOSPIZIAS TRIVIRGATUS RUFITINCTUS. 
Spizaetus rufitinctus, Mc Clelland, P. Z. S., p. 153 (1839). 
6 juv. Chan Teuk, E. Siam. 9.8.15. 
2 Klong Song, near Petriu, C. Siam. 21. 2. 16. 

-p235. ACCIPITER VIRGATUS AFFINIS. 

Accipiter affinis, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc., p. 81 (1844) . 

? Chan Teuk, E. Siam, 12. 8. 15. 

The Sparrow - Hawks from Tenasserim southwards and Siam 
eastwards run a trifle smaller than the mora northern specimens of' 
affinis, but can hardly be considered a distinct race. They are 
resident wherever found and breed throughout their range. Mr. C. 
Hopwood, of the Burmese Forest Department, has taken several 
nests, eggs and young. 

-t 236. Baza lophotes lophotes. 

Falco lophotes, Temm. PI. Col., p. 10 (1824). 

$ Krabin, C. Siam, 12.11.15. 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



30 MR. E. C. STUART BAKER ON 

Wing 232. mm. This beautiful hawk is resident wherever 
found, but moves about locally to a considerable degree. In the 
non-breeding season it seems to be very gregarious, and small 
parties may often be found flopping round together with their 
curious crow-like flight. Occasionally these parties temporarily 
join forces, and then a dozen or more birds may be seen together 

237. Baza jerdoxi. 

Lojjhastitr jerdoni, Blyth, J.A.S.B., xi, p. 464, (1842). 

9 Hup Bon, S. E. Siam ; 20.7.15. 

S Klong Song, near Petriu, C. Siam, 22.2.16. 

238. MlCROIIIERAX EUTOLMUS. 
Hierax eutolmus, Giay, Gen. Birds 1, p. 21 (1844). 
9 Krabin, C. Siam, 2.11.15. 

COLUMBM 
239. Crocopus phcexicopterus axxamexsis. 

Crocopus annamensis, Ogilvie-Grant, Bull. B.O C, xxviii, p. 27 
(1909). 

4 6 Krabin, C. Siam, 28.10.15 to 7.11.15. 

These specimens bear out Ogilvie-Grant's diagnosis of "anna- 
mensis ". Vassal's skins were in a very bad condition, whereas 
Herbert's specimens are very beautiful, and are therefore easier to 
determine. They are decidedly darker birds throughout than viridi- 
frons, with less green on the foreheads and much darker heads. In 
the extreme west of Siam the birds are nearer true viridifrons, but 
still sufficiently divisible from it. 

4-240. Trerox pompadora phayrei. 

Osmotreron phayrei, Blyth, J.A.S.B., xxxi, p. 344 (1862). 

cS Pak Jong, E. Siam, 19.8.15. 

Oberholser has recently shown (Smith. Misc. Coll. No. 7, 
p. 2) that the name Osmotreron is antedated by Gloger's name of 
Bendrophasa. I agree, however, with Hartert, who unites Treron 
and Osmotreron under the former name, as there seems no good reason 
for dividing them. The Siam specimen is quite typical. 
—^ 241. Trerox olax. 

Columba olax, Teintn., PI. Col. 241, livr. 41 (1823). 

3 6 9 Klong Wang Hip, P. Siam, 3-4.10.15. 

JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM, 



A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FROM SIAM. 31 

These birds seem rather large, the wings varying from 125 
in a young bird to 129 mm. in the largest bird, an adult male, but a 
few other specimens in the British Museum collection from the 
extreme south are as big. 

1 can find no differences between specimens from Sumatra, 
the type locality, and others from Borneo and the mainland. 

-/-' 242. Treron vernans vernans. 

Columba vernans, Linn., Mant., p. 526 (1771). 

$ Klong Wang Hip, P. Siam, 30. 6. 15. 

d$ Maprit, P. Siam, '7. 1. 16. 

6 Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam 25. 1. 16, 

The type locality for vernans is the Philippines (Brisson, 
Orni. i., p. 143, 1760), but Oberholser has recently described new races 
from the islands of Niao and Simalur. 

•jr 243. Treron curvirostra curvirostra. 

Columba curvirostra, Gmel., Syst. Nat., i. pt. 2, p. 777 (1788). 

2d? Hup Bon, S. E. Siam, 25-27. 7. 15. 

2d2 2 Pak Jong, 17. 8. 15 to 21. 8. 15. 

6 Krabin, C. Siam, 2. 11. 15. 

6 Hinlap, E. Siam, 7. 12. 15. 

Oberholser points out ( Smith. Misc. Coll. vol. 60. No. 7, p. 3, 
1912) that the oldest name for this green pigeon is undoubtedly curvi- 
rostra, of Gmelin, which must replace nepalensis of Hodgson. He 
designates the Malay Peninsula — rather a wide designation — as the 
type locality for the typical race, and creates several new races from 
various islands. In my " Indian Pigeons and Doves" I had already 
pointed out that curvirostra was the proper specific name for this 
Treron ( p. 68 ), and I there showed that the correct type locality 
was Sumatra, and this must therefore now stand and not the Malay 
Peninsula, though I am unable to separate the birds from the two 
localities. 

-f- 244. MUSCADIVORA AENEA SYLVATICA. 
Columba sylvatica, Tick., J. A. S. B., ii, p. 581 ( 1833). 

2 6 Krabin C. Siam, 2-16.11.15. 

I have already shown in " Indian Pigeons and Doves " 
(p. 93 ) that it is quite impossible to divide the Southern Indian 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



32 MR. E. C. STUART BAKER ON 

and Burmese birds into geographical races, and the Siam birds differ 
in no way from the Burmese. 

Some Ornithologists still ignore the possibility of parallel 
conditions in different areas resulting in the same form of evolution, 
but the majority now accept this, and the old theory of the impos- 
sibility of interrupted areas containing the same sub-species is being 
gradually discarded. In India, Burma, Siam and the Malay 
Peninsula we have a horse-shoe shaped area in which we constantly 
find similar, if not quite the same, order of evolution proceeding as 
we work south down the two arms. 

Thus we often find the Ceylon birds more nearly approximate 
their representatives in the Malay Peninsula than cither of them do 
their parent race in the extreme north. 

The name Carpophaga is preoccupied, and the above generic 
name takes its place. 

t 245. COLUMBA LIVIA INTERMEDIA. 
Columba intermedia, Strick., Ann. and Mag. N. EL, xiii, p. 39(1844). 
9 Pak Jong, E. Siam, 17.8.15. 
A typical intermedia with dark grey lower back. 
-f 246. Chalcophaps indica indica. 

Columba indica, Linn., Syst. Nat. i, p. 284 (1766) . 
6 9 juv. Klong Wang Hip, P. Siam, 6-9.10.15. 
2 Krabin, P. Siam, 13.11.15. 
9 Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam, 24.1.16. 

-f 247. Streptopelia suratensis tigrina. 

Columba tigrina, Temm. and Knip., Pig. i, pi. 43 (1910-11). 

2 6 2 9 Samkok, C. Siam, 20-22.6.15. 
o Klong Wang Hip P. Siam, 5.10.15. 
All these specimens are typical tigrina. 

>- 248. (Exopopelia traxquebarica htjmilis. 
Columba humilis, Temm. PI. Col. 259 (1824). 
6 2 Samkok, C. Siam, 30.8.15. 
6 9 Krabin, C. Siam, 10.11.15. 

4-249. Geopelia striata striata. 
Columba striata, Linn. Sys. Nat. i, p. 282 (1766). 

3 1 Klong Wang Hip, P. Siam, 30.9.15 to 9.10.15. 

JOUllN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FROM SIAM. 33 

1 have dealt with this little dove at length in " Indian 

Pigeons and Doves " (pp. 253-255) and see no reason to alter the 

conclusions I then came to. 

GALLINM 

Family Phasianid.e 

-^250. POLYPLECTRUM BICALGARATUM CHINQUIS. 

Pavo chinquis? Miill., Sup. Linn. Kyst. Nat., p 121 (1776). 

6 Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam, 19. 1. 16. 

Since writing on this genus in the Journal of the Bombay 
Natural History Society (vol. xxiv, p. 209), a further study of 
additional material has convinced me that it is really necessaiy to 
divide it into two races which will stand as (1) P. b. bicalcaratum 
for those birds found west of Assam, and (2 ) P. b. chinquis east of 
the same Province. The Assam birds are intermediate, those from 
the extreme east and south being nearer chinquis, whilst the birds 
from the western districts of Goalpara, Kam'rup and Naogong are 
practically true bicalcaratum. 

^251. GALLUS BANK1VA BANKIVA. 
Phasianus bankiva, Raff, Trans. Linn Soc. xiii, p. 319 (1882) 
Sumatra, 

3 6 1 ? Pak Jong, P. Siam, 18. 8. 15. 

tf $ Krabin, C. Siam, 6. 11. 15. 

The four birds obtained on the 18th August are a 1 young 
birds. Ornithologists are gradually coming round to the view that 
there is nothing to prove that the domestic fowl is the direct des- 
cendant of the Indian Jungle-fowl, and that therefore the name 
G alius gallus cannot properly be applied to it. 

252. GenNjEUS nycthemerus ripponi. 

Gennceus rijyponi, Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C xiii. p, 29 (1902), 

6 Muak Lek, E. Siam, 17.1.16. 

2 6 9 Pak Jong, E. Siam, 26-28.2.16. 

In a review of this genus in the Journal of the Bombay 
Natural History Society (vol. xxiii, p. 658), I gave what we then 
considered to be the range of the various sub-species of Kalij and^ 
Silver Pheasants, but since then Silver Pheasants have been found 

VOL. IV. NO. i, 1920, 



34 MR- E- C- STUART BAKER ON 

over a very greatly extended area, especially to the south, and the 
present specimens add an enormous area to that occupied by ripponi. 

7" 253. LOPHURA RUFA. 

Phasianus rufus, Raff., Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii., p. 321,1882. 
(Sumatra.) 

4 6 Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam, 15-30.1.16. 

If the birds from Sumatra always differ from those on the 
mainland in having their flanks chestnut streaked, the latter will 
have to be called Lophv/ro rufa castonea (Gray), and the Siam birds 
would also come under this name. 

254. LOPHURA DIARDI. 
Euplocamus diardi, Bonap., Comp. Rend, xi , iii, p. 415 (1856). 
6 Chan Teuk, E. Siam, 12.8.15. 

4 c? 4 $ et 2 juv. Pak Jong, E. Siam. 19.8.15, 28-30.10.15. 
and 20-22.2.16. 

6 Hinlap, E. Siam, 8.12.15. 

-. 255. ROLLULUS ROULROUL. 

Phasianus roulroul, !::cop. del. Floret Faun. Insub. ii, p. 93 (1786). 
( Malacca) . 

6 Tung Song, P. Siam, 14.9.15, 

256. EXCALFACTORIA CHINEXSIS CH1NENSIS. 
Tetrao chinensis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p 277 (1766), 

5 Samkok, C. Siam, 29.8.15. 

6 Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam, 21.1.16. 

Birds from Southern Burma and the Malay States agree in 
beino- more richly coloured both above and below, and they gene- 
rally also have a slaty-blue wash on the upper parts, more especial- 
ly on the wing-coverts and inner secondaries, the latter of which are 
in many specimens very strongly suffused with this colour. None 
of the Indian birds, with the exception of one from Lucknow, has 
any trace of this colour. 

The Siam birds are very richly coloured, and approach 
E. c. lineata in this respect. 

- 257. Tropicoperdix chloropus. 

Tropicoperdix chloropus, Tick., J.A.S.B. xxviii, p. 453 (1859). 
3 c?3 2 Pak Jong, E. Siam, 16-21.8.15 and 26.2.16. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FROM SIAM. 35 

) -/- 258. Tropicoperdix charltoni. 

Perdix charltonii, Eyton, Ann. and Ma?. Nat. Hist, svi, p. 230 
(1845). 

3cfl 2 Maprit, P. Siam, 27.12.15 to 8.1.16. 

6 2 Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam. 18.1.16. 

This very nice series of Ey ton's Hill Partridge adds consider- 
ably to the range proved to be inhabited by this bird. Hume re- 
ferred to its having been found in Tenasserim, and Blyth also gave 
" Tenasserim Mountains " as a portion of its habitat, but these state- 
ments have never been quite accepted. Mr. Herbert's acquisitions 
prove that it is by no means rare even further east. 

" Iris brown. Bill, olive, yellow or naples yellow-brown, 
through olive-green to brown or even black "; in the latter case the 
specimen is a very fine old male. " Legs sap-green or yellow, naples 
yellow, gamboge, sienna " (Mr. Herbert's collector). 

— 1-259. CALO PERDIX OCULEA OCULEA. 

Perdix oculea, Temm., Pig. et Gall, iii, pp. 408 & 732 (1815). 

6 c? 22 Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam, 14.1.16 to 1.2.16. 

A beautiful series of most beautifully made skins. There are 
two other closely allied races, sumatr.ina from the Island it is named 
after, and bomeensis of Ogil vie- Grant, the latter named from a single 
skin. The Siam birds are, of course, typical ooulea. 

Mr. C. Hopwood and Mr. F. M. D. Mackenzie recently obtained 
this bird as far north as the head-waters of the Tavoy river. 

• 260. Rhizothera loxgirostris. 

Perdix longirostris, Temm., Pig. et Gall, iii, pp. 323-721 (1815). 

.<? Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam, 24. 1. 16. 

This occurrence extends the range of this fine partridge con- 
siderably to the north, and curiously enough it was obtained much 
about the same time as another was obtained in Tenasserim by Mr. 
C. Hopwood. 

The specimen obtained by Mr. Herbert's man is veiy pale 
below, and more decidedly a pale fulvous on the wing-coverts and 
inner secondaries than any other specimen in the British Museum. 
It seems also to be more richly and cleanly marked than any other, 
but this perhaps is due to the perfection of the make-up of the skin. 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



36 mr- e. c- stuart baker cn 

261. Fraxcolinus chinensis. 

Tetrao chinensis, Osbeck, Voy. China ii, p. 32G (1771). 
cf 9 Chan Teuk, E. Siam, 11-15 8. 15. 

The Burmese and Siam birds, except those in the extreme 
north of the Chin Hills and Yunnan, average much smaller than those 
of China. Thus 14 Chinese males average in wing measurement 
152 mm. and vary between 145 (1), 149 (1). and 158 mm. The 22 
Siamese and Burmese birds average only 142, and vary between 136 
and 151 mm. If, however, we leave out the birds of the Chin 
Hills and Yunnan, which agree better with the Chinese birds in 
size, the average is reduced to 141 mm., with a maxima of 149 
mm., equal only to the smallest but one of the Chinese birds. 

A Saigon female is very small, having a wing of only 122 
mm., another instance perhaps of specially small races in this area. 
I can trace no difference in plumage between the Chinese and 
Burmese birds correlating with that in size. 

HEMIPODII 

Family TURXICID.E 

262. Turnix pugnax plumbipes. 

Hemipodius plumbipes, Hodg., Icon. ined. B. M. Nos. 126 & 127: 
id. Sporting Mag., p. 346 ( 1837). 

9 Muak Lek, E. Siam, 28.8.15. 

This specimen appears to belong to the typical Burmese and 
Malayan form plumbipes, whilst others from the extreme east and 
the north-east are perhaps referable rather to T. p. rostrata, the 
Chinese form. 

GRALLjE 

Family Rallid^e 

263. Hypottenidia striata gularls. 

Rallus gularis, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 196 ( 1822 ). 

2 6 Klong Sam, near Bangkok, 13.2.16. 

9 Samkok, C. Siam, 18.3.16. 

The wings of all three of these specimens vary between 5 in. 
and 5.1 in. (126-129 mm.). They are very dark and richly 
coloured above, and are a pure slaty grey below. As a series, taken 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. 8GC SIAM. 



A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FROM SIAM. 37 

together with those in the British Museum collection, they seem to 
contrast in this respect with birds from India and Southern China. 
The difference, however, between birds from north and south and 
from east and west is so trifling, and so many individuals agree 
with others from the opposite area that it does not seem advisable 
to divide them into geographical races. 

The Philippine and Celebes birds appear to be habitually 
darker and more richly coloured both above and below than those 
from other parts of this Rail's habitat, and can easily be distinguish- 
ed by this feature. 

The Philippines are the type locality for striata, so that birds 
from elsewhere will have to bear the name gularis of Horsfield, 
type locality Java. 

Birds from Borneo are intermediate, a little darker than 
typical gularis and perhaps nearer striata than the other form. 
"f 264. Amaurornis phcenicura chinensis. 

Fulica chinensis, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl.,*p.54 (1783). 

9 Krabin, C. Siam, 8.11.15. 

d Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam, 15.1.16. 

2 d $ Bangkok, 13.2.16 and 10.3.16 

d Samkok, C. Siam, 18.3.16. 

This species was reviewed by E. Streseman in Novitates 
Zoologicae xx-, p. 303. In this he shows that the typical phainicura 
is confined to Ceylon and that our Indian aud Burmese birds are 
the same as the Chinese ( type locality, Hong Kong ) and must 
bear the name sinensis. True phoenicura will probably, however, 
eventually be found to extend into Southern Travancore, the 
avifauna of which is strongly Ceylonese. 

-f 265. Gallicrex cinerea. 

Fulica cinerea, Gml. Syst. Nat. 1, p.702 (1788). 

d Samkok, C. Siam, 30.8.15. 

This is a young bird which has not yet completely attained 
adult plumage. 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



38 MR. E. C STUART BAKER ON 

LIMICOLsE 
Family Glareolid.e 

— -266. GLAREOLA PRATIXCOLA OBIENTALIS. 

(Aureola orientalis, Leach, Trans. Linn. Sue. xiii, p. 132 (1821). 

9 Meklong, C. Siam, 27.6.15. 

3 6 9 ct 6 juv. Bangkok, 30.6 to 5.7.15. 

9 juv. Samkok, C. Siam, 29.8.15. 

A nice little series of these Pratincoles, or Swallow-Plovers. 
Two of them are in the spotted juvenile plumage and evidently bred 
in the vicinity of the place where obtained. They breed in suitable 
places throughout Burma and Siam. ] 

267. GL AREOLA LACTEA. 
Glareola lactea, Temm. Man. d'Oini. ed. 2e, ii, p. 503(1820). 
6 9 Krabin, C. Siam, 11.11.15. 

Mr. Herbert is apparently the first to obtain specimens of 
this beautiful little Swallow-Plover in Siam. 

Family PaRRIDyE 

268. Metopidius indicus. 

Parra indica, Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, p. 765 (1790). 

d 9 Bangkok, 30.6.15. 

3 d Krabin, C. Siam, 31.10 and 8.11.15. 

4 269. Hydrophasianus chirurgus. 

Tringa chirurgus, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii, p. 92 (1780). 
9 Krabin, C. Siam, 8.11.15. 

Family CharadriiDjE 

4-270. Sarcogrammus indicus atroxuchalis. 

Lobivanellus atronuchalis, Blyth, Jerdon B. of Ind. iii, p. 648. (1864). 
6 2 9 Samkok, C. Siam, 19.6. and 30.8.15. 
o* Meklong, C. Siam, 27.6.15. 

The two males are in full plumage ; the two females have 
patches of white on the throat and chin, but are otherwise in fully 



1 These birds breed in large numbers in nil of the three localities 
named. E.G.H. 

Jol'iiN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FROM SIAM. 39 

adult plumage. One female also has the white band on the side of 
the head produced through the ear-coverts almost to the neck, 
as in indicus indicus, but has the typical white back-band of 
i. atronuchalis. 

'^"271. Charadrius dubius jerdoxi. 

jEgialitis jerdoni, Legge, P. Z. S. p. 39. ( 1880 ). 
d Krabin, C. Siam, 3.4.15. 

This specimen appears to be true jerdoni, and not dubius 
dubius of China. 

^272. HlMANTOPUS HlMANTOPUS. 

Charadrius himantopus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 255 (1766). 

3 d Paklat, near Bangkok, 13.2.16. 

Of the three birds one has the whole head and neck pure 
white, the second has these parts with numerous obsolete black 
markings, whilst the third has a large black patch on the nape. 

This Stilt has lately been discovered breeding in Tennas- 

serim, and very probably will prove to be a resident breeder in Siam 

also. l 

-j- Family Totanid.e. 

273. Trixga gl areola. 

T ring a gl areola, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 149 (1758). 
d Hua Takhae, C. Siam, 10.2.16. 

|-274. Tringa ochropus. 

Tringa ochropus, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 149 (1758). 
6 ? Krabin, C. Siam, 3.11.15. 

275. Trixga xebularia. 

Scolopax nebidaria, Gunner, Leem, Berkr. Finn). Lapp., 
p. 251 (1767). 

—276. Erolia subminuta. 

Tringa subminuta, Middendorff, Reis. Sibir., Zool. Saugth. ~V"og. &c. 

p. 222, pi. 1. xix, Fig. 6 ( 1851 ). 
d\ Klong Wang Hip, P. Siam, 6.10.15. 

1 Mr. W. J. F. Williamson found it breeding in large numbers, in 
May 1918, about 22 miles S. S. E. of Bangkok, and took a considerable 
series of eggs. Eds. 



J Bt) k 



VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



40 MR. E. C. STUART BAKER ON 

This specimen still has a great deal of the summer rufous on 

the upper plumage, and the outer rectriees all have broad white 

edges. 

Family ScOLOPAClDJE. 

277. Gallinago gallixago. 

Scolopax gallinago, Linn. S\\st. Nat. i, p. 147(1758). 

This bird has pure white axillaries and very broad white 

edges to the feathers of the under wing-coverts, the feature by 

which the supposed eastern form, G. g. raddel is divided from the 

western. This characteristic is, however, so very irregular that it 

cannot possibly be considered of sub-specific value. Many birds 

from the extreme East are as dark as any from the extreme West, 

though it is but rarely that very white under wings are found in 

western birds. 

Family Larid.e. 

278. LARUS BRUNNE1CEPHALUS. 

Lams brunneicephalus, Jerdon. Maclr. Journ. Linn. Soc. xii, 
p. 25 (1840). 

2 2 Paknam, C. Siam, 14.2.16. 

Both these birds are in rather abraded plumage with 
wings of 320.5 and 317.4 mm. respectively, and both also, have 
remains of juvenile plumage on wings and tails. 

Blanford gives Burma as the furthest limit east of this gull's 
range, so Siam is yet a further extension. 

+- 279. Hydrochelidon leucopareia. 

Sterna leucopareia, Natt. in Temm. Mam. d'Orni. 2nd ed. ii> 
p.746 (1820). 

• 2 9 Hua Takhae, C. Siam, 10.2.16. 

J - 280. Sterna sinensis. 

Sterna sinensis, Gml. : Syst. Nat. i, p. 608 (1788). 

2 9 Meklong, C. Siam, 27.6.15. 

Both these females are in full breeding plumage, and this 

species is of course a resident breeding bird in Siam. 

Family Phalacrocorid.e 

281. Piialacrocorax carbo ixdicus. 

Phalacrocorax carlo indicus, Mathews, B. of Aus. iv. pt. 2, p. 171 
(Feb 1915). 

JOURX. XAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FROM SIAM- 41 

2 Singgora, P. Siam, 12.10.15. 

Mathews' brief description of his new sub-species merely 
reads « This form is characterized by its small size and purplish 
green colouration". 

1 accept Mathews' name with great hesitation, as I can- 
nob personally divide any of the races of P. carlo, as at present 
diagnosed, from one another. (See Harterfc, Novitates Zoolog. 
xxiii, p. 293, &c. ) 

282. Phalacrocorax javaniclts. 
Carlo javanicus, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 197 ( 1821 ). 
6 2 Bangkok, 5.7.15. 

The male is in full breeding plumage with white filaments 
on head and neck, whilst the female is in juvenile plumage, and 
appears to be a bird about a year old or rather less. 

Family CiconiiDjE. 
+ 283. Anastomus oscitans. 
Ardea oscitans, Bodd. Tabl. PI. Enl. p. 55 (1783). 

2 Samkok, C. Siam, 20.6.15. 

Though it has been recorded from Cochin China I do not 
think the Open-bill has yet been recorded from Siam. Blanford 
notes that it is rare in Pegu and unknown elsewhere in Burma. 1 

Family Ardeid^e. 
-f 284. Herodias garzetta. 
Ardea garzetta, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 237 (1766). 
2 c? Meklong, C. Siam, 26.6.15. 

One male is in full breeding plumage with perfect crest and 
breast-plumes, and the disintegrated feathers of the back extending 
beyond the tail. The second bird is still in immature plumage. 
-V 285. Ardeola grayi. 
Ardea grayii, Sykes, P.Z.S. p. 158 (1832). 
2 Meklong, C. Siam, 26.6.15. 
6 Bangkok, 30.6.15. 
9 Krabin, C. Siam, 17.11.15. 

1. Large flocks of these birds may be seen in suitable localities in 
C. Siam. Yide also Williamson, Vol. Ill, No. 1, p. 39. E/G. H. 

VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



42 MR. E. C. STUART BAKER ON 

No. 1 is a young bird, No. 2 a male in full breeding plumage, 
and No. 3 a bird of the year in quite immature plumage with a wing 
well under 8 in. It might possibly be a young specimen of bacchus. 

4-286. Ardeola BACCHUS. 

Bupkus bacchus, Bonap. Consp. Av. ii, p. 127 (1855). 

2 6 Krabin C. Siam, 4-13.11.15. 

6 Klong Bang Lai, P. Siam, 31.1.16. 

A. bacchus and A. grjyi are, of course, species and not 
sub-species, and they breed together over a great portion of their 
joint habitat, i.e., from Assam eastwards, and very often in company 
on the same clump of bamboos or trees. On account of this young 
birds are very often hard to determine, and this is the case with 
the third bird I have named A. gr tyi. but which may possibly be 
the present species. 

287. BUTORIDES JAVANICA JAVANICA. 

Ardea javanica, Hnrsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 190 (1821). 

6 Krabin, C. Siam, 31.10.14. 

$ Klong Sam, near Bangkok, 12.2.16. . 

288. Nycticorax nycticorax. 

Ardea nycticorax, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 235 (1766). 
6 Hua Takhae, C. Siam, 10.2.16. 

-,'- 289. GORSACHIUS MELANOLOPHUS. 

Ardea melanolopha, Raffles, Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 3 6 (1822). 

d Maprit, P. Siam, 5.1.16. 

This is a heron with a very wide range from Travancore in 
Southern India, throughout that country wherever suitable, and 
throughout Burma, Siam and the Malay Peninsula, but nowhere is 
it at all well known, less because of its rarity than on account of its 
skulking shy habits. In Assam when beating for buffalo we used 
sometimes to put this bird up, bat in bright sunlight it was as 
unhappy and uncomfortable as an owl. 

- 290. Ardetta cixnamomea. 

Ardea cimuvmomea, Gml. Syst. Nat. i, p. 643 (1788). 
S $ Krabin, C. Siam, 3-13.11.15. 

JOURN. NAT, HIST, SOC. SIAM, 



A COLLECTION OF BIRD-SKINS FROM SIAM. 43 

-h 291. DlJPETOR FLAVICOLLIS FLAVICOLL1S. 
Ardea flavicollis, Lath. Ind. Oin. ii, p. 701 (1790). 
6 $ Samkok, 31.8.15. and 18.3.16. 

f" 292 BOTAURUS STELLARIS. 
Ardea stellaris, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 239 ( 176(5 ). 
° Raheng, C. Siam, Feb- March, 1915. 
Family Anatid^e. 
-4- 293. Dendrocycna javanica. 
Anas javanica, Horsf. Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii, p. 199 ( 1821 ). 
$ Meklong, C. Siam, 27.6.15. 

6 3 $ Klong Wang Hip, P. Siam, 30.9 to 5.10.15. 
The three birds killed in October are nestlings still in down. 

-j — 294 Nettopus coromandelianus. 
Anas coromandeliana, Gmel. Syst. Nat. i, p. 522 ( 1788). 
4 6 4 9 Krabin, C. Siam, 30.10 to 8.11.15. 

Family Podicipedhle. . 

4- 295. PODICIPES FLUVIATILIS ALBIPENNIS. 

Podiceps albipennis, apud. Blyth Cat. p. 311 ; Theobald, J.A.S.B. 

xxiii, p. 603. 
cJ juv. Krabin C. Siam, 8.11.15. 



VOL. IV, no. i, 1020. 



45 



THE APPLE-SNAILS OF SIAM. 



ADDENDUM. 

, Pachylabra winkleyi (Pilsbry). 

1901. Ampullaria Winkleyi, Pilsbry, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, LIII, p. 189, pl.V, figs. 2, 3. 

Since I corrected the proofs of this paper I have discovered 
an interesting specimen from my own Tale Sap collection that had 
been temporarily mislaid. It agrees very closely, except in being 
considerably smaller, with Pilsbry's figure of this species, differing 
from L. begini in the well-marked flatness of the whorls outside 
the suture and in the very fine, minutely granular transverse striae. 
The external surface is pale olivaceous with occasional, irregular 
black longitudinal streaks. The inside of the lip is yellowish but 
the margin white. 

It is evident that I was wrong in identifying the form 
common in the Southern Shan States (Pec. hid. Mus., XIV, p. 
138; 1918J with P. winkleyi. It can hardly be distinguished 
from P. maura (Reeve), which is certainly not more than an 
eastern local race of P. globosa (Swainson), the species common in 
the Ganges valley. 

P. winkleyi was originally described from Henzada in Pegu 
and has not hitherto been recorded from Siam. 

N. AXXANDALE. 



JORUN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. VOL. IV, NO. 1, 1920. 



47 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

-V No. I. Note on Siamese Pheasants 

The British Museum has recently received from Mr. K. G. 
Gairdner four most interesting skins from Siam. 

The first of these is a beautiful specimen of Phasianus ~ 
humiae burmanicus from the hills of northern Siam, shot at an 
elevation of about 6000 feet. This is a great extension of this fine 
pheasant's hitherto recorded range and adds yet another Game Bird 
to the Siamese list. 

The other three skins are those oiGennaeus lineatus aud must - 
I think for the present be retained under typical Gennaeus I. line- 
atus until we get further skins to endorse or refute the value of the 
differences shown by these specimens. 

Of the three skins two are those of males, one fine old bird, 
the other a male just having attained adult plumage ; they were 
both shot on the Me Ping rapids half way between Chiengmai and 
Raheng ; the third, which is a female, was shot near Raheng at a 
height of 1500 feet. 

Raheng is a good long way north and east of the nearest 
point at which true lineatus has yet been found and it is not 
■ surprising to find that the skins show some remarkable points not 
wholly consistent with their being this bird. 

The young male might be a typical lineatus from Pegu, 
except that its central tail feathers somewhat approach the more 
northern forms. The old bird however is very big with a much 
fuller bigger crest than lineatus usually indulges in, and with a tail 
of no less than 390 mm., which also approaches sharpei in general 
appearance. 

The female is like that of lineatus but approaching some- 
what to that of rufipes and not that of sharpei, the which, as far 
as we know at present, has always a dark under-surface with the 
feathers streaked not barred as in this specimen. 

It will be very interesting to obtain more specimens, for it 
seems as if we might have here a new race combining features of 
G. 1. lineatus, G. 1. rufipes and G. I. sharpei. 

E. C. Stuart Baker 
British Museum, Dec, 14. 1919. 

r No. II. Notes on Early Snipe. 

I am indebted to Mr. E. Chappie for most of the birds upon 
which the following notes are based. 

The first snipe of the season (1919) was shot by Major 
Forty on the 29th August. 

VOL. IV. NO. 1, 1920. 



48 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



On September 1st. one gun obtained one bird, and another 
three birds. 

September 8th. Birds were still scarce, and Mr. Chappie 
secured three couple of Pin -tails. All birds were in a heavy state 
of moult, mostly with the tirst three primaries old, the fourth and 
fifth were new stumps, the next two about half -grown and the 
remainder full new feathers. The primary and greater wing - 
coverts were in a very ragged state through moult, most of them 
beino- missing. Two tails were also in moult, and in some cases 
the " pins " were in moult too. 

September 14-th. 24 couple, all Pin - tails. The first quarter 
of the moon was on the 2nd and full moon on the 10th, so those 
who base their calculations on the first large influx of birds coining 
down by the light of the moon can do so from this date, as this was 
the first good bag of the season. The state of the moult showed 
very little change from last week ; though some birds were more 
advanced and one had complete new primaries. 

September 21st. All Pin - tails, and not much change in the 
state of moult. 

September 28th. All Pin-tails, but the birds appeared to be 
in rather heavier moult than those shot the two previous weeks, 
which would seem to show that they were fresh arrivals and that 
the others had continued their journey south. 

October Ipth. Three couple of Fan-tails were secured by 
three guns, and the rest were all Pin-tails. The Fan-tails were 
in almost complete new plumage, but some of the Pin-tai's had 
three and others five old primaries, showing that they were in the 
same state of moult as the first arrivals a month earlier. 

October 8th. 6 couple of Fan-tails and 8 couple of Pin- 
tails. There was no change in the moult of either since last week. 
October 15th. Two Pin-tails sent in to show the state of 
their moult. One was an old bird and the other a young one. The 
old bird had one old primary, two new stumps for the second and 
third, and the moult of the wings was nearing completion. As 
regards the tail the upper and lower coverts were in full moult, the 
four centre feathers of the tail had been changed but the side 
feathers and the " Pins " were in moult. The young bird had lost 
the two centre feathers of the tail, otherwise there was practically 
no sign of moult. There was also a distinct difference in colour as 
the younger bird lacked the depth of colouring of the old bird. 

From the difference in the state of moult and the depth of 
colouring it seemed that old and young birds could be identified at 
a glance, but an inspection of more young birds, a few days later, 
showed that in the majority of cases there was no difference 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. S0C. SIAM. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 49 



between the young and the old birds, either as regards the state of 
moult or depth of colouring. 

The young birds were identified by the shorter bill (about 6 
to 10 mm. less than the old bird) and by the lack of development 
of the corrugations on the bill, by brighter colour and smaller size 
of the legs, and lastly by the sutures on the skull. 

Careful note of the first arrival of young birds was not 
taken, but it is believed that the first obtained was fully a month 
later than the arrival of the old birds. 

October 18th and 19th. Both days yielded the same propor- 
tion of seven Pin-tails to two Fan-tails, but this must vary 
according to the suitability of the ground for the latter birds, as 
Fan-tails are nearly always found in the paddy. Their softer and 
more sensitive bills necessitating their feeding in the softer ground. 

February 35th 1920. 

E. G. Herbert. 



vol. iv, no. .i, 1920. 



THE 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Natural History Society of Siara. 



Vol. IV"., No. 2. 



Date of issue, March 1921'. 






EDITED BY 



W. J. F. Williamson and L. Brewitt-Tavlor 



Price to Members, 



Price to Non-Members, 



.Tcs. 1.25 

..Tcs. 3.00 



Agents :— WITHERBY & Co., LONDON. 



V A 



CONTENTS 



Page. 
More Notes on Siamese Birds. By C. Boden Kloss, 

M.B.O.U, ... ... ... ... 51 

4 Two New Leggada Mice from Si am. By C. Boden Kloss, 

f.z.s. ... ... ... ... ... 59 

On Rattus blythi Kloss (Mus cinnamwiews Blyth), with 

remarks on allied forms. By C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. ... 65 

J A New Giant Squirrel From Pulo Condore. By C. Boden 

Kloss, f.z.s. ... ... ... ... 71 

The Pulo Condore Group and its Mammals. By C. Boden 

Kloss, f.z.s. ... ... ... ..73 

Some Birds from Pulo Condore. By EL C. Robinson and 

C. Boden Kloss ... ... ... ... 85 

Reptiles and Batrachians Collected on Pulo Condore. 

By Malcolm A. Smith, f.z.s. ... ... ... 93 

J On a Small Collection of Mammals from Cambodia. 

By C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. ... .. ... 99 

4 Two New Races of Sciurus finlaysoni. By C. Boden 

Kloss, f.z.s. ... ... ... ... 103 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. — A habitat of Schomburgk's Deer (Gervus schom- 

burgki). By C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. ... ... 105 

II. — The status of the Burmese House-Crow (Gorvus 
splendens insolens) as a Siamese Bird. By W. J. F. 
Williamson, m.b.o.u. ... ... ... 105 



the 

JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Natural History Society of Siam. 



Volume IV. BANGKOK. Number 2. 



+ MORE NOTES ON SIAMESE BIRDS. 

By C. Bodex Kloss, m.b.o.u. 

These remarks were intended as an addendum to my " Notes 
on some recently-described Siamese Birds," but reached the Editors 
too late for inclusion in Vol. Ill, No. 4. Since that article was in 
print (pp. 447-53) I have heard from Mr. Stuart Baker that only 
those examples of Otocompsa flaviventris from Pak Jong and its 
neighbourhood and from Krabin are red-throated birds ; the speci- 
mens from Peninsular, SW., W. and SE. Siam are all black- 
throated (0. /. minor). 

Mr. W. J. F. Williamson has also, quite lately, sent me mate- 
rial from his collection which throws further light on some of the 
forms dealt with. His series of bulbuls from SW., N. and SE. 
Siam are all of the black-throated kind. One bird of several from 
Sriracha is interesting, as on careful inspection a slight trace of red 
can be perceived at the base of the throat : thus proving that 
joltnsoni, as I pointed out, is only an off-shoot and sub-species of 
0. flaviventris. He has one red-throated bird from Phrabat, be- 
tween Lopburi and Pak Jong. We shall eventually find, I fancy, 
that 0. f. johnsoni only occurs east of the Menam Chao Phya and - 
north of the latitude of Bangkok. 

The Southern black-throated bulbul (0. f. minor) is of the ■ 
same size as johnsoni with wings not more than 87 mm. long ; Mr. 
Baker writes me that the wings of the typical Northern form 



52 MR. C. BODEN KLOSS'S FURTHER NOTES ON 

(0. /. jiaviventris) range between 87 and 94 mm. and that it has a 
longer crest ; the Malayan and Indo-Chinese bird is therefore quite 
a recognisable subspecies. 

Five examples of a Cuckoo-Shrike from Nong Kae, SW. 
Siam,* belonging to Mr. Williamson, are all Lalage polioptera, and a 
female from Bandon, Peninsular Siam, is either L. fimbriata 
neglecta or intermediate between that race and L. f. culminata. 
Bandon is in a transition zone between the two forms and it is not 
easy to determine to which a solitary banded specimen should be 
referred. 

A series of ten examples of Chalcoparia singalensis -• 
koratensis from Bangkok, N., E. and SE. Siam (Sriracha and Sata- 
hip), in their more intensely yellow abdomens extending farther 
upwards and meeting more abruptly the rufous of the throats, 
beautifully illustrate the difference between themselves and C. s. 
singalensis in which the bellies are duller, while the rufous extends 
farther down the breast and ends indefinitely. 

Mr. Baker writes (Journ. N. H. S. Siam, iii, p. 415) that he 
has compared 25 Siamese birds with over 100 specimens from more 
northern countries and can detect no differences of sub-specific 
value. I have no doubt that this is so and it goes to show that all 
northern birds are G. s. koratensis. Baker has completely misap- 
prehended the gist of the matter : singalensis is not of the north 
but of the south, where Malacca has been selected as its type- 
locality, and it is because of the differences that exist between East 
Siamese birds and those of the Malay States that koratensis is valid 
as a good subspecies. 

Of course if you compare things which are the same with 
one another you don't find the differences which are shown by 
comparison with them of things which are somethiug else : if you 
compare koratensis with koratensis you naturally won't sec the 
differences which separate koratensis from singalensis. 

It is more or less as above that Baker arrives at the conclu- 
sion (torn, cit., p. 423 and Ibis, 1919, p. 192) that Chrysophlegma 

* A bout 50 miles north of Koh Lak. 

JOU11N. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME RECENTLY DESCRIBED SIAMESE BIRDS. 53 

flavinucha lylei, also, cannot be accepted as a subspecies : — because 
some woodpeckers sent by Mr. E. G. Herbert from Siam do not 
differ from examples of G. f. pierrei, therefore lylei, also from 
" Siam, must be the same as the others and also be pierrei. But Mr- 
Herbert's birds which came from Eastern Siam and mine from 
South-western Siam are not alike (I have examined Herbert's 
specimens) ; the former are indeed pierrei — absolutely : but the other 
is not. 

Baker further suggests that birds obtained and recorded from 
North Siam by Gyldenstolpe as C. flavinucha are probably also 
pierrei ; but he is probably mistaken. One of the characters dis- 
tinguishing pierrei is its dark bill whereas North Siamese birds have, 
according to Gyldenstolpe ( Kungl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl., 56, No. 2, 
p. 92 ), bills " bluish grey to white " — as has lylei ! 

Mr. Williamson has also sent for inspection a considerable 
series of black and grey Drongos from Siam. 

During my visit there at the end of 1916 I obtained black 
birds of two forms and determined one, by comparison with Javanese 
t material, as Buchanga atra longus: then, not realising that one or 
both might be merely visitors and being unwilling to recognise two 
resident races of the same species occurring , together, 1 forced the 
second into Dicrurus annectens and described it with the name of 
siamensis. I have since realised that it is Buchanga atra cathoeca 
( previously recorded by Gyldenstolpe from Kuh Lak, in Kungl. Sv. 
Vet. Akad. Handl., 56, No. 2, p. 20); but the original description of 
the race by Swinhoe is misleading as the bronze colour it was said 
to possess is merely caused by wear. 

Since it was impossible to discover any difference between 
the small series of longus from Siam and Java (vide Ibis, 1918, p. 
227 ), it might be thought that there is migration between the 
two places : but it is an argument against such a practice that the 
climates of both are very similar and there is in neither any consi- 
derable annual variation. Further, though nearly all the examples 
known to me from Southern Indo-China (North Malajr Peninsula, 
Siam and S. Annam) were taken between October and May, yet Mr. 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



54- MR. C BODEN KLOSS'S FURTHER NOTES ON 

Williamson has obtained a specimen from Pran, SW. Siam, in June, 
which seems to indicate that the bird is a true resident. Bartels 
states that longus is in good plumage in Java at the middle of the 
year and I have found it plentiful from January to April, so we 
may infer that it is continuously present there. If it migrated we 
should expect to meet with it at times in the well-explored 
countries bordering its line of travel, but it is unknown from 
Sumatra, Borneo or the Malay Peninsula south of Victoria Point, 
. Tenasserim. 

The case of caihoeca is different ; it is not yet correctly. re- 
corded from Annam (for Buchanga atra caihoeca, Ibis, 1919, p. 610, 
is B. a. longus), but it is known from the other areas mentioned 
above from November to May only, and it is highly probable that 
it is merely a winter visitor in Southern Indo-China, to which it 
comes to escape the cold season of Southern China. 

A number of grey drongos from Siam of Buchanga 
leucophaea type are in Mr. Williamson's collection and, with others 
available, form a fairly large series. On laying out this material 
by characters it falls into two groups : — (a) larger and, on the 
whole, darker birds : (b) paler, smaller specimens ; and it is evident 
that two forms occur. 

Fourteen specimens of the larger race measure : — 
Wings, 134 to 140; average 140 mm. 
Tails, 140 to 168; average 154 mm. 
The bills from gape range as long as 28.5 mm. 
Most of these specimens, which were collected between 
October and February, come from Bangkok, but some were obtained 
as Car south as Victoria Point and east as Lat Bua Kao and Koh 
Chang Id., Chantabun. I regard them as probably belonging to 
~f- Baker's race B. 1. hopwoodi, extending from Eastern Bengal to 
Yunnan (Nov. Zool. xxv, 1918, p. 294) which thus seems to migrate 
in winter as far south and cast as the above localities, but apparent- 
ly no further. Hume and Davison's specimens of Buchanga 
pyqrrhops from Tenasserim are probably the same (Stray Feathers, 
vi 3 p. 216). 

JOX7RN. NAT. HIST. SOO. SIAM. 



SOME RECENTLY DESCRIBED SIAMESE BIRDS. 55 

The remaining birds, smaller and rather paler, measure : — 
Wings, 129 to 139; average 132 mm. 
Tails, 127 to 155; average 140 mm. 

The bills [on the whole are a little smaller than the 

others. 

The range of the specimens is from Victoria Point through 

Siam to South Annam and they were collected between September 

and May, while Gyldenstolpe secured examples, which seem similar, 

in North Siam during May, June and July (t. c. s., p. 21). 

These birds are apparently B. 1. mouhoti with which they 
agree in size, though Walden stated that the Cambodian type of 
this race was darker than the typical Javanese form. I find that, 
on the whole, the contrary is the case and so did Gyldenstolpe :. 
however, within narrow limits it appears that much importance 
cannot be attached to colour, as the tone of the plumage varies with 
wear and age. (There are among the Siamese series several ex- 
amples which have the under-wing coverts spotted with white and 
the vents and under-tail coverts greyish-white, and they are alto- 
gether paler than the others : on the other hand some adults in 
much worn plumage are quite as dark as the darkest of Javanese 
birds). The distinction between the Javan and continental forms 
seems to lie in the slightly longer tail of the latter, as a series of 
thirty-four birds from Java measures : — 

Wings, 124 to 139; average 130 mm. 
Tails, 123 to 145 ; average 132 mm. 

I see no difference in the bills which measure in both from 
26 to 28. 5 mm.* 

The fact that, according to Bartels, B. I. leucophaea is in best 
plumage at the end and beginning of the year shows that it does 
not leave Java at that season and that, apart from smaller size, 
it is not the same bird as B. I. mouhoti which, judging by the dates 
on which it has been collected and the occurrence of immature indi- 

* This series shows a higher range than Baker's, in which the 
tails, measure from 118 to 131, average 123 mm. only (t.c.s., p. 292). 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



56 MR. C. BODEN KLOSS'S FURTHER NOTES ON 

viduals, would appear to be a real resident throughout southern 
Indo-Cliina. 

i What is Bunchanga leucophaea disturbans (Baker, Nov. 

Zool. xxv, 1918, p. 293), a small drongo distinctly darker than the 
Javan leucophaea, with a habitat from Amherst (typical locality) 
down into the Malay Peninsula and found also at Pak Jong, E. 
Siam ? 

Two dark races have already been described from ths, 
area : — nigrescens Oates, from Rangoon ; and intermedia Blythi 
from Penang (not, fide Baker, from the extreme south of the 
Peninsula), with a wing of 127 and tail of 130 mm. in the type. 

We have nine examples of the latter which were taken in 
Kedah and Junk Seylon during November and January and deter- 
mined by actual comparison with Blyth's type lent by the Indian 
Museum. They measure : — 

Wings, 123 to 134; average 128 mm. 

Tails 124 to 138; average 133 mm. 

While the measurements of disturbans are: — 
Wings 120 to 136 ; average 127 mm. 
Tails 122 to 151 ; average 131 mm. 

Baker gives the habitat of nigrescens (a very dark bird with 
which, however, he associates pale individuals*) as from about 
Bhamo to Bangkok, thus establishing an overlap with disturbans 
throughout the country between Amherst and Bangkok. (Dates 
considered Junk Seylon birds to be the same as those of Rangoon 
and, as shown above, the former are intermedia, : therefore nigres- 
cens (fide Oates) can scarcely be a very different bird from the 
latter. 

I have always regarded Oates' birds from Rangoon and the 
neighbourhood as practically the same as intermedia, though 
possibly a slightly larger race, and there seems hardly room for a 
third dark bird between Penang and Rangoon, especially when it is 

* I am not sufficiently acquainted with northern birds to have a 
deGnite opinion, but I question Mr. Baker's allocation of pale birds to 
nigrescens. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME RECENTLY DESCRIBED SIAMESE BIRDS. 57 

based on an individual from a place so near the latter town as is 
Amherst. 

It does not seen probable to me that intermedia (nigreseens) 
is a subspecies of leucopliaea but rather allied to longicaudata of 
the Indian Peninsula, or else a distinct species. I imagine at least 
two species : — a paler Malaysian bird running from Java up through 
Indo-China, and a darker Indian one, typified by longicaudata, 
extending through Indo-China down into the Malay Peninsula. 



VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



59 



TWO NEW LEGGADA MICE FROM SIAM. 
BY C. BODEN KLOSS, F. Z. S. 

- These mice are part of a collection of mammals from Western 
Siam made by Mr. K. G. Gairdner, about which I have written in 
previous volumes of this Journal. 

Some years ago Mr. G. S. Miller united the genus Leggada 
of Gray with Mus l , and Mr. Oldfield Thomas acquiesced in this 
opinion. When I first examined Mr. Gairdner's mice it seemed 
to me that they represented a new genus, for I was unable 
to find one in which they could be placed: but at about the same 
time Mr. Thomas, in England, came to the*conclusion that Leggada 
was worthy of recognition and decided to revive it 2 . Mr. Thomas, 
who has since then seen these specimens, writes me that they 
belong to Leggada as he now conceives it, and has kindly sent me 
an example ot Leggada pahari from Sikkim3 to which some of the 
specimens are closely related. 

These animals are like Mus with notched incisors, ml longer 
than m- and m'3 combined and with no frontal ridges ; but with- 
out any masseteric knob at the anterior roots of the anteorbital 
plates and the palatal foramina not narrowing to acute terminations 
between the molars. The external appearance is apparently similar 
but the pelage is spiny. 

The following Key indicates the differences, as far as Indochinese 
species are concerned, between some genera of mice which have the 
bevelled edges of the upper incisors notched. 

J . Palatal foramina penetrating deeply between the molars. 

a. Frontal lidges well marked : no masseteric knobs. Leggadilla. 

b. No frontal ridges. 

al Masseteric knobs present : molar laminae 

much distorted. ... ... ... Mus. 

bl Masseteiic knobs absent: molar laminae 

less distorted. ... ..* ... Tautatus. 

B. Palatal foramina not penetrating deeply between the 

molars : no frontal ridges nor mas.-eteric knobs. Leggada. 

1. Miller, Mammals of Western Europe, 1912, p. 863. 

2. Thomas, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, xxvi, 1919, pp. 417-420. 

3. Mas pahari, Thomas, op. cit. xxiv, 1916, p. 415. 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



60 MR. C. BODEN KLOSS ON 

Leggada pahari gairdneri subsp. now 
Diagnosis. A little more buffy above than L. p. pahari 
(Thomas) and whiter below ; the tail also paler below, nearly bi- 
coloured. Skull very similar but the palatal foramina more contracted 
posteriorly, ending less squarely ; the rostrum weaker, not so deep ; 
the incisors less stout and markedly less curved backwards. 

Characters and colour. Pelage composed of flattened grooved 
spines and fine hair, grey (" dark gull grey ") at the base ; the spines 
about 8 mm. long on the back, with blackish tips, and the soft hair 
with buffy tips; the general colour-effect on upper parts and hind 
limbs being a dark brown (nearly " clove " brown) slightly grizzled 
with buff; sides of body greyer; sides of head and neck and the 
fore-limbs whitish ; under side of hind-limbs, head and body white, 
the latter distinctly margined from the sides and clothed with a 
mixture of hair and fine spines about 5 mm. long, grey at base with 
white tips. Hands and feet white. Tail dark above and clad with 
dark hairs, pale below and clad with pale hairs. 

Skull and teeth. Skull of medium proportions, braincase 
rounded. Nasals rounded anteriorly and posteriorly and terminating 
about level with the premaxillaries and with the anterior edge of 
the orbital spaces. 

Supraorbital edges abruptly rounded off, but without ridge 
or bead. Anteorbital plate sloping considerably backwards from 
base to zygoma 'and scarcely convex. 

Dorsal profile of rostrum straight between tips of nasals and 
mid-frontals : top of braincase flattened when viewed from behind. 

Palatal foramina short and broad, their greatest combined 
breadth in front of their mid-length, rounded posteriorly and falling 
short of the molars by at least 1 millimetre. 

Front wall of first molar nearly vertical : tooth-rows conver- 
ging posteriorly. 

Mesopterygoid space broad and parallel-sided, scarcely reach- 
ing the level of the last molars. 

Bullae of normal size and dilation, as in Mus. 

Measurements. See table postea. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



NEW LEGGADA MICE FROM SI AM. 61 

Type. Adult female (skin and skull) No. 2621/CBK. Col- 
lected at Me Taw, 1500 ft., Western Siam, 40 miles N. W. of 
Raheng, on 4th February 1917 by Mr. K. G. Gairdner. Orig. No. 357. 

A second female (2620/CBK) was obtained at the same place 
on 5th March 1907. Orig. No. 385. It is slightly more buffy above 
than the type. 

I shall not attempt to describe here the molars of these two 
specimens : they are not ivory-like, clearly grooved and channelled 
as in Battus, Mus, etc., but are covered with a sort of translucent 
enamel which prevents details being clearly seen. 

I am rather doubtful whether a third female with the same 
history (No. 2619/CBK : Orig. No. 372) is of this form, but until 
the mice of Siam are better known I leave it here. 

It is rather darker and duller above than the others, being 
less grizzled with buff (perhaps owing to wear), while the base of 
the pelage is neutral grey : the hair of the under-parts is a little 
less spiny and is shorter so that the grey base is slightly more 
visible. 

The skull is of the same general shape, but the nasals are 
sharply pointed posteriorly and extend beyond the premaxillaries 
which are not carried obliquely backwards with them. 

The anteorbital plates are convex, practically perpendicular 
above the base. 

The palatal foramina are narrowed anteriorly, have their 
greatest combined breadth behind their mid-length and terminate 
in line with the alveolar edge of the first molars. 

Toothrows scarcely converging ; the molars are much worn ; 
but the incisors curve to the same slight degree as the other two : 
mesopterygoid space narrower. 

Leggada rahengis nov. 
Characters and colour. Upper pelage spiny, the spines 
about 7 mm. long with broad black tips mixed with fine hairs tipped 
with ochraceous, so that the general colour is a dark grizzle of och- 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



62 MR. C. BODEN KLOSS ON 

raceous-buff and blackish : sides of head and body rather more 
ochraceous buffy. Pelage throughout neutral grey at base. Sides 
of muzzle, limbs beneath and under-parts greyish-white, fairly 
clearly margined. Hands and feet white. Tail dark above and 
pale below, the hairs clothing it in agreement. 

There appear to be three pairs of pectoral mammae : the 
inguinal number is not ascertainable. 

Skull and teeth. Skull long and narrow : braincase markedly 
pear-shaped. 

Nasals extending slightly beyond the premaxillaries and the 
anterior edge of the orbital spaces, rounded anteriorly, truncate 
posteriorly. 

Supraorbital edges sharply angular but without ridge or 
bead. Anteorbital plates very angular, the apex slightly overhang- 
ing the base and the backward flexture very abrupt : a very small 
excrescence at the anterior foot, in no way approaching in size or 
shape the masseteric knob of Mils. 

Dorsal profile of skull regularly curved, crown but little 
flattened. Palatal foramina long and almost parallel-sided, but their 
greatest combined breadth in front of their mid -length, truncate 
posteriorly and terminating in line with the anterior edges of the 
crowns of the first molars, considerably within the roots, which are 
exposed : toothrows converging posteriorly. 

Mesopterygoid space narrow and diverging slightly posterior- 
ly, scarcely reaching the level of the last molars. 

Size and dilation of bullae normal, as in Mus. 

Upper incisors nearly upright, as in L. p. gairdneri. 

Measurements. See table postea. 

Type. Adult female with very worn teeth (skin and skull) 
2618/CBK. Collected at Me Taw, 1500 ft., 40 miles N.W. of Raheng, 
Western Siam on 7th. February 1917 by Mr. K. G. Gairdner. Orig. 
No. 362. 

A single specimen only. 
/ 

JOURX. XAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



NEW LEGGADA MICE FROM SIAM. 



63 



Remarks. This mouse is probably a race of Leggada 
nitidula (Blyth), 1 with which species it seems to agree in colour and 
in the possession of upper incisors about upright, or only very 
slightly recurved, and somewhat similar supraorbital ridges: 2 but 
it has the tail as much longer than that of L. n. popoeaS as the tail 
of that form is longer that that of L. n. nitidula. It is also other- 
wise larger than either. 

Measurements- of Mice in millimetres. 





Liggada pahari g 


lirdneri 






Type. 
2621/CBK. 


M 
CQ 
O 
©* 

CM 

to 

CM 


W 

PQ 

OS 

«o 

CM 


§ 00~ 

*s — 1 

S 5D 
V. CM 

S £, 
>> 

H 


Sex 


2 


$ 


9 


2 


Head and body ... 


93.5 


91 





88.5 


Tail 


— 


88 


— 


86 


Hindfoot, s. u. 


21 


20 


— 


17 


Ear 


15 


14.5 


— 


15 


Skull:— 










greatest length 


25.5* 


24.5* 


24.0 


26.0 


condyle* basilar length 


23.0 


21.2 


— 


23.7 


palatilar length 
diastema 


11.2 

7.5 


10 4 
7.2 


10.1 

6.2 


12.1 

7.5 


upper molar row (alveoli ) ... 


3.9 


3.7 


4.0 


5.0 


do do ( crowns ) ... 


37 


3.5 


4.0 


4.0 


length of palatal foramina ... 


4.5 


4.0 


4.8 


5.5 


combined nasals 


9.8x2 6 


9.5* x 2.7 


9.4x2.6 


10 0x2.8 


zygomatic breadth ... 


12.2 


11.6 


12.0 


12.2 



1 Mus nitididus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Sue. Bengal, xxviii, 1859, 
p. 294 (Shwegyin, N". Tenasserim). 

2. Vide Thomas, op. cit. xxvi, pp. 418, 420. 

3. Thomas, op. cit., p. 420. 

* Approximate. 



VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



65 



On Rattus blythi Kloss (Mus cinnamomeus Blyth). 

With remarks on allied forms. 

By C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. 

In a collection of mammals made by Mr. K. G. Gairdner near 
Raheng, Western Siam, are several examples of a rat which I iden- 
tify, after comparison with the type, as Rattus blythi mihi (Mus 
cinnamomeus Blyth) — a form that does not seem to have been met 
with since it was first described by Blyth in 1859 and given a name 
unfortunately preoccupied and therefore untenable. 

Mr. Gairdner's series consists of seven skins and six skulls 
taken during February and March, 1917, at Me Taw and Sikawtur, 
1500 ft., about 40 miles N. W. of Raheng - a locality a hundred 
miles distant from' Shwegjnn in North Tenasserim where the type 
specimens were obtained by Major Berdmore. 

In 1917 I contributed some notes to the " Records of the 
Indian Museum " (vol. xiii, p. 7) on the tailless type of " Mus cinna- 
momeus " and comjured it with Rattus cremoriventer cremoriven- 
ter, l which it closely resembled in colour. 

Mr. Gairdner's specimens show, however, that R. blythi has a 
bicoloured tail - a character that at once proves it to belong to a 
different species ; for cremoriventer has a tail dark throughout and 
also almost pencillate, while that of blythi, though well clad in a 
normal way, has no elongate hairs at the tip. 

Further, while the upper pelage is of the same composition 
and of practically similar colour, the fresh specimens show that 
blythi is beneath of a whiter, less creamy tone than cremoriventer. 

As regards the skulls, those of blythi have less spatulate 
nasals but broader anteorbital plates, while the palatal foramina 
extend back to a line joining the front molars : in cremori venter 
they fall short of this. 

The upper incisors of blythi curve backwards noticeably more 
than do those of cremoriventer, which in this respect is resembled, 
among rats of this group directly known to me, only by Rattus 

1. Vide Notes on page 68 postea. 
VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



66 MR. C. BODEN KLOSS ON 

orbus,- a member of the bicoloured-tailed section (The curve of the 
incisors is not a very satisfactory character in this connection, as the 
differences are not great, but the skulls of s^me of the rats of the 
group are so alike that it is of some use). R. blythi is also a larger 
animal and in size comes near jR. c. tenaster. 3 

R. blythi differs from orbus in having much less intensely 
coloured upper parts and whiter undersurface : has a shorter tail 
with a larger white area, narrower interpterygoid space, narrower, 
more parallel-sided, palatal foramina. 

The skull and teeth of blythi do not appear to differ mate- 
rially from those of Rnttus bukit, * bub the fur is brighter coloured 
above and whiter below ; the white of the hind leg is more' fre- 
quently cut off from that of the foot ; the hair of the tail distally 
is often white above, while that of bukit is dark ; and the pelage is 
looser, less compact of spines and not so stiff (thus like crcmori- 
venter). 

In the same way that the upper incisors of blythi and bukit 
differ from cremoriventer, so do those of marinus. •"' However, blythi 
may be distinguished from this last by its smaller palatal foramina 
and narrower interpterygoid space, while its colour is a little 
brighter above and less creamy below. 

The differences between the above forms may be set out as 
follows : — 

A. Tail unicoloured, somewhat pencillate, incisors 
less curved backwards. 

a. Smaller. ... ... . .. It. c. cremori venter. 

b. Larger. ... ... ... R. c. tenaster. 

B. Tail bicoloured, no longish hairs at tip. 

a. Incisors le-s carved backwards, tail with 

less white below and generally over 

200 mm. long, bullae larger. ... Ii. orbus, 

b. Incisors more curved backwards, tail with 

more white below and generally less than 
200 mm. long, bullae smaller 
«1 Palatal foramina larger. ... ii?. marinus. 

bl Palatal foramina smaller. 

a'2 Colour duller, pelage stiffer. ... E. bukit. 
b'2 Colour brighter, pelage less stiff* 7?. blythi. 

2, 3, 4, 5. Vide Notes on page 68 postea. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. S1AM. 



RATTUS BLYTHI. ' 67 

All these rats are medium -sized animals with tawny to elay- 
coloured upperparts thickly sown with flattened spines having 
pale horny green bases, strongly margined whitish or creamy 
underparts and bicoloured tails (except cremoriventer), while the 
bullae are small and flattened. 

Others of the same group, not referred to above, are : — 
R. pan, 6 like bukit ; but the white of the underparts not extending 
to the hind feet, interpterygoid space more abruptly truncate 
anteriorly, rostrum rather heavier and nasals longer. Rattus pan and 
marinus are undoubtedly local forms of R. bukit, whereas 
gracilis and orbus probably represent jB. rapit Bonhote (t. c, p. 123) 
from Kina Balu, North Borneo. 

A rat not known to me by topotypical examples is R. lepidus. 7 
A single specimen from North Siam referred to it 8 -except for 
decrease in the number and size of spines - seems not to differ 
materially from R. bukit. 

I have seen no specimens of R. gracilis 9 which Mr. Thomas 
stated (1. c.) to be closely allied to R. bukit, but later (in litt.) 
concludes is the same as R. orbus : if so it is quite different from 
blythi and from bukit; and it must be admitted that while orbtts 
was being described gracilis was entirely over-looked. 

Rattus sakeratensis 10 I am quite unable to place for the 
present ; it was founded on a single specimen which I have not 
seen. 11 

The following are the description and measurements of Mr. 
Gairdner's series of Rattus blythi : — 

Upper pelage thickly set with broad spines with greenish 
bases and grey tips : rump sown with long black-tipped piles. Tail 
dark above and whitish below. Colour above cinnamomeus, inter- 
mediate between ochraceous-tawny and the same tinged with amber- 
brown ; the back streaked by the blackish tips of the spines : base of 
fur grey. Head, sides and limbs more ochraCeous-buffy. 

6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Vide Notes on page 68 postea. 
VOL. IV. NO. 2, 1920. 



68 



MR. C. BODEN KLOSS ON 



Underparts, hands and feet creamy white (ivory yellow) ; 
white of hind feet sometimes continuous with that of the leg and 
sometimes striped mesially with brown. Hair of the upper surface 
of the tail sometimes whitish distally. (In No. 2627 the whole tail 
is white for more than half its length, both skin and hair ; 
in No. 2622 for less than a quarter.) 

Notes. 



1. Mus cremoriventer Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xiii, 
1900, p. 144, pi. v. figs. 2, 2a, 2b (Trang, 3000 ft., Peninsular 
Siam). 

2. Epimys o?'bus Robinson &, Kloss, Ann. & May., xiii, 1914, p. 
228 (Kao Nong, Bandon, 3500 ft., Peninsular Siam). 

3. Epimys tenaster Thomas, Ann. & Mag., xvii, 1916, p. 425 (Mt. 
Muleyit, 5-6000 ft., Tenasserim). 

Mus bukit Bonhote, Ann. & Mag., xi, 1903, p. 125 (Bukit 
Besar, Patani, Peninsular Siam). 

Epimys marinus Kloss, P. Z. S., 1916, p. 50 (Koh Chang Id., 
S. E. Siam). 

6. Epimys jerdoni pan ' Robinson & Kloss, t. c. s., p. 229 (Koh 
Samui Id., West coast of Peninsular Siam). 

7. Epimys lepidus Miller, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Quarterly, 
61, 1913,. p. 20 (Bok Pyin, South Tenasserim). 

Vide Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, iii, 1918, p. 60 (Muang Prae). 

Epimys gracilis Miller, Sm. Misc. Quart., 61, 1913, p. 21 
(Mt. Muleyit, 5-6000 ft., Tenasserim). 

10. Rattus sakeratensis Gyldenstolpe, Kungl. Sv. Vet. Akad. 
Hand!., 57, 1917, p. 46, pi. vi, figs. 6 & 9 (Sakerat, south of 
Korat Town, Eastern Siam). 

11. Vide Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, iii, 1919, p. 381. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



RATTUS BLYTHI. 



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VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1S20. 



Journ.Haf'.nttt. Sen. Smuti . Yttt (V. rW 2 ■ 




c«a w. 



71 



A NEW GIANT SQUIRREL FROM PULO CONDORE. 

By C. Bodex Kloss, f.z.s. 

Ratufa melaiiopepla condorensis, subsp. nov. 

3 c? ad., 3 ? ad., 1 ? subad. Main Island, Pulo Condore 
Group, near Cochin China. 

8-1 3th September 1919 (Nos. 2700-6/CBK). Dr. Malcolm 
Smith's collector. 

The smallest black-and-tan Giant Squirrel known : hindfoot 
apparently not exceeding 60 mm. Skulls showing no special pecu- 
liarities apart from abnormally small size, the greatest length yet 
known being 64 mm. 

Colour generally resembling R. m. leucogenys mihi (P. Z. S. 
1916, p. 43. South— East Siam), geographically the nearest known form 
(though perhaps the upper parts are never so intensely black); but 
the yellow parts a trifle richer, more like R. m. sinus mihi (t. c, p. 44. 
Koh Kut Id., S. E. Siam) and R. m. peninsula! Miller (Proc. Wash. 
Acad. Sci. II, 1900, p. 71. Trang, Peninsular Siam). 

The yellow of the hindlegs sometimes extends over the upper 
surface of the feet and sometimes only reaches their inner sides. In 
one specimen the black part of the lower leg is grizzled with bufl*. 
Otherwise the seven specimens examined are very uniform in 
appearance except that Nos. 2702 and 2704 have the upper parts, 
owing to bleaching, largely dark brown and No. 2703 only slightly 
so. There is always a russet patch between the ears. 

Type. Adult female (skin and skull). No. 2706/CBK. 
11th September 1919. 

All those Giant Squhrels, which I have referred to Ratufa 
melanopepla, should probably stand as races of R. bicolor (Sparmm. 
Java) of which melanopepla itself is undoubtedly a subspecies, and 
gigantea (McClell, Assam) also, though in a small area (North Siam) 
the latter is found together with an animal with untufted ears (R. 
phceopepla Miller, Smithsonian Misc. Collections, vol. 61, No. 21, 1913, 
p. 25. South Tenasserim). 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



72 



A NEW GIANT SQUIRREL FROM PULO CONDORE. 






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JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



73 



THE PULO CONDORE GROUP AND ITS MAMMALS. 

By C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. 

The Pulo Condorei group lies about 45 miles from the coast 
of Cochin-China on the edge of a 15-fathom bank stretching out 
from the mainland. 

It consists of one comparatively large island, two of moderate 
size and eight or ten small ones, and is fairly compact. 

Pulo Condore, the largest, is about nine miles long and two 
to four in breadth : most of its surface is hilly and its summit is 
1,954 ft. high. The eastern side is divided into two bays by a 
rocky peninsula and in the southern and larger of the two is situat- 
ed the settlement and convict establishment. This bay is protected 
to some extent on the east by the island of Hon Bai Kan, the 
second largest of the group, nearly three miles long and rising 
1,076 feet. 

Rather smaller than Hon Bai Kan is Ban Vioung, or Little 
Condore, 708 feet high, lying close to the south-west shore of the 
main island where it creates a channel that offers fairly protected 
anchorage. 

I have not yet landed on the group, but the following short 
notes were made during a passage through the islands in March 
1917, when my steamer anchored one evening for half an hoar in 
the principal harbour : they are, therefore, merely impressions of 
the east side and perhaps a visit would cause them to be consider- 
ably amended. 

" We stopped in a semicircular bay open to the south-east, 
with three or four islets in the mouth and larger ones to seaward. 

" The settlement is on a plain along the head of the bay 
fronted by a sandy beach and backed by hills : few buildings were 
visible from the ship. The Governor's hot-weather quarters are 



1 The Island of Gouids. (Pulo, poulo, pulau (Malay) = Island. 
Condor, Condore, Kundur (Malay) = Gouid. 

I follow the spelling of the Admiralty charts. 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



74 MR. C. BODEN KLOSS ON 

built on a knoll at the southern end of the flat land : the house, 
formerly known as ' Fort Anglais,' is now called ' Villa des Allies'. 

" Behind the plain rises a semicircle of hills, irregular in 
height, sometimes steep, sometimes with a gradual slope : there 
appears to be one low pass to the western side of the island. 

" Except for the plain and the neck of the peninsula which 
forms the northern part of the island, the land seen was hilly every- 
where and apparently not fertile: it seems to consist of many rocky 
slopes and some precipices and, where wooded, there were apparently 
growing only small trees, much wind-contorted and without much 
undergrowth. 

" At the south of the island opposite Little Condore - which 
has a high steep peak and some cliffs - there is a stretch of forest 
on the lower slopes, but much of the island above this was practi- 
cally naked. 

" The northern part of Pulo Condore has a lesser elevation 
than the rest of that island except for the neighbourhood of the 
settlement, and some of the hills behind, which seem to be forested. 

" The islets to seaward seemed to be very rocky and sterile, 
the only woody growth being wind-twisted trees and scrub." 

There are no modern descriptions in English of the islands 
other than that in the " China Sea Directory," but good accounts 
have been given of visits in 1687 by Dampier (The Voyage round 
the World); in 1780 by Captain James King, LL. D., F. R. S. (A 
Voyage of Discovery into the Pacific Ocean, Vol III — Captain 
Cook's Third Voyage); and in 1822 by Dr. George Finlayson (The 
Mission to Siam and Hue) and by John Crawfurd, F. R. S. (Journal 
of an Embassy to Siam and Cochin China).*" 



*In Staunton's " Embnssy to China,," under Lord Macartney, occurs 
a short account of a visit paid in May 1793. Turtles are the only animals 
mentioned. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



PULO CONDORE AND ITS MAMMALS. 75 

These travellers record the following animals : — 

Monkeys. Fisher, Finlayson, Crawfurd. 

Flying Squirrel (striped brown and white). Fisher. 

Black squirrel. Fisher, Finlayson, Crawfurd. 

Wild pig. Dampier, Fisher, Finlayson. 

Wild cocks and hens. Dampier, Fisher. 

Doves and Pigeons. Dampier, Crawfurd (if. bicolor and 

M. aenea). 
Parrots and parakeets. Dampier. 
Turtles. Dampier, Staunton. 
Lizards. Dampier. 
Iguanas (Varanus sp.). Dampier. 
Limpets and Mussels. Dampier. 

The group does not look like one with a rich mammalian 
fauna. Dr. Malcolm Smith's investigations (in September 1919 he 
sent two of his collectors to the islands, where they spent about a 
fortnight, with instructions to obtain mammals as well as reptiles 
and batrachians) have, however, considerably increased our knowledge 
of it by adding, to the live determined species on record, four more 
of which one, at least, is new — the Giant Squirrel : and perhaps the 
Macaque and the Palm-Civet also; but of this last the only example 
obtained is too young to speak about. 

We have still to receive specimens of the Wild Hog and Flying 
Squirrel of the earlier visitors : and it is probable that there will 
eventually be discovered a lesser Fruit-bat (Cynopterus sp.) and one 
or more insectivorous bats, a race of Forest-rat (.K. rajah subsp.) and 
a Mouse-deer (Tragulus sp.) 

1 Macaca irus Cuv., subsp. 

1 6 aged, 1 d adult, 1 9 aged. Pulo Condore, 19-23 Sept. 
1919. [Nos 2691, 2, 3/CBK. ] Dr. Malcolm Smith's collector. 

These Macaques are either M. i. validus (Elliot, Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (8) VI, 1909, p. 252 : stated to have come from Cochin- 
China) or are closely related to it. 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



76 MR. C. BODEN KLOSS ON 

I have a male Macaque from Trangbom, 30 miles east of 
Saigon, to which they bear a general resemblance : but until I have 
compared the specimens from both places with the type of Elliot's 
race they had better remain undetermined subspecifically. 

All these do not differ in colour from M. i. atrieeps mihi 
(Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, III, 1919, p 347. Koh Kram Id., 
Inner Gulf of Siam) as much as I thought from Elliot's description 
of it that validus did. M. i. atrieeps, however, is easily separated 
from the Cochin-China and Pulo Condore animals in having the 
black area on the crown smaller and much more sharply margined, 
while its skull can easily be distinguished by the unusually small 
size of the orbits : it is further separated from the Pulo Condore 
examples by the larger molars and more arched, horse-shoe shaped 
palate, the breadth of which between the last molar.5 is much 
reduced. 

This is the first time the Pulo Condore " monkey " has been 
identified as a form of Macaque. 

I give, with the measurements of the present specimens, the 
dimensions of two more examples of M. i. atrieeps, sent me by Mr. 
W. J. F. Williamson, which confirm the description of the original 
series. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



PULO CONDORE AND ITS MAMMALS. 



77 



Measurements of Macaca irus subsp. from Pulo Condore 
and M. L atriceps from Koh Kram. 



/ 


Pulo Condore. 


Koh Kram. 


No 
Sex 


2691 
6 


2692 
6 


2693 

9 


2567 
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2568 




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Skull and Teeth:— 

Greatest length... 
Basal length 
Palatal length ... 
Zygomatic breadth 
Upper tooth row excluding 

incisors (alveoli) 
Upper molar series only 

(alveoli) 
m 2 — m 2 externally (alveoli) 
Lower toothrow excluding 

incisors (alveoli) 
Lower molar series only 

(alveoli) 
Length of mandible 


435 

498 

126 

44 

124 

90 
53 

84.2 

36 

29.7 
37 

45 

37.7 
91 


480 

540 

128 

45 

113.5 

80 
49 
81 

38 

30.5 
34.6 

44 

37.8 
85 


380 

470 

110 

32 

106.5 
72 
43.5 
69 

44 

30 
31 

39 

34.2 

77 


465 

510 

133 

43 

119 
86.5 
57.5 

39 

32.2 
37.5 

44.5 

37.5 
89.5 


415 

465 

118 

42 

100 
68 
43 
67 

36 

31.8 
33.6 

39.5 

34.6 

74 



* Native collector's measurements, taken in the flesh. 



VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



78 MR. C. BODEN KLOSS ON 

2. Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Pall., subsp. 

1 9 imm, 12 Sept. 1919 [No. 2694/CBK]. Dr. Malcolm 
Smith's collector. 

New for the islands ; but only represented by a quite young 
female. On geographical grounds it might be P. h. cochinensis 
Schwarz (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) VII, 1911; p. 635, Saigon)i ; 
but, like another young female from Koh Chang Id., S. E. Siam 
(vide P. Z. S. 1916, p. 33), the pale frontal band is broad. 

3. Tupaia glis dissimilis (Ellis). 

Sciurus dissimilis Ellis in Gray, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 1860, 

V, p. 71 (Pulo Condore). 
Tupaia dissimilis Lyon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 45, 1913, pp. 3,67, 

pi. 1 (Pulo Condore). 

1 6 ad., 1 6 subad.,1 9 ad., Pulo Condore, 12 - 15 Sept. 1919. 
[Nos. 2695 - 7/CBK.] Dr. Malcolm Smith's collector. 

Number of mammae unknown : but almost certainly 3 - 3 = 6. 
Upper parts a grizzle of blackish and ochraceous (more buffy on the 
sides); tail similar but grizzle coarser. Sides of head and neck 
with less black than the back ; upper and lower ej'elids clear buffy. 
Outer sides of limbs like the body, but grizzling less distinct. 

Underparts buffy to ochraceous buff: under side of thighs 
darker, ochraceous tawny. Under side of tail buffy and black, more 
buffy down the median line. Neck stripes scarcely traceable, buff. 

On the whole the general colour of the upper parts is more 
like T. g. belangeri (as represented by specimens from Siam : vide 
Kloss, J. N. H. S. S. Ill, 1919, p. 355) than the more adjacent 
T. g. cambodiana mihi (1. c, p. 357) in that the tail is less black 
and more like the rump than the shoulders. It is more like the 
former also in the possession of a more pronounced eye-ring. The 
neck stripes are, however, less pronounced than in either, far less so 
than in the former ; and the underparts are more richly coloured 

1 An unsatisfactory name, as Cochin is in Madras. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



PULO CONDORE AND ITS MAMMALS 



79 



than in the others, which are buffy or whitish below, while the tail 
is also rather more ochraceous throughout. 

Here we seem to have a case of- the Pulo Condore race being 
more allied to Siamese and Cambodian forms than to more adjacent 
ones from Cochin China and Annam. 

Measurements of Tupaia glis dissimilis. 



No. 


2695 


2696 


2697 


Sex 


6 


6 


5 




ad. 


subad. 


ad. 


Head and body* 


185 


175 


165 


Tail* 


173 


168 


162 


Hind foot, s. u.* 


39 


34 


36 


Ear* 


14 


14 


14 


Skull and teeth: — 








Greatest length 


48 


46 


— 


Basal length 


41.5 


40 


41 


Palatal length 


24 


24 


24.5 


Upper molar series (alveoli ) 


15 


14.8 


14.8 


Tip of pmx to lachrymal notch 


17.8 


17.7 


17.6 


Rostral breadth at diastema 


6.8 


6.5 


6.0 


Interorbital breadth 


13.8 


13 


13 . 


Zygomatic- breadth 


24 


23 


23 



* Native collector's measurements, taken in the flesh. 



VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



80 MR. C. BODEN KLOS3 CM 

4. Crocidura nmrina (Linn). 

1 6 ad., 1 5 subad., 7 Sept, 1919 [Nos. 2698, 9/ CBK. ]. 
Dr. Malcolm Smith's collector. 

Medium sized animals, in colour grey tinged with brown. 
New for the islands. 

5. Pteropus hypomelanus condorensis Peters. 

Pteropus condorensis Peters, M. B. Akad. Berlin, 1869, p. 393 
( Palo Condore ). 

Pteropus hypomelanus condorensis Anderson, Cat. Chiroptera B. M., 
1, 1912, p. 110. 

Not obtained by Dr. Smith's collector. Very few topotypes 
have been collected and all Museum specimens have been mounted 
and must now be more or less faded. 

6. Rhinoloph-as min:r (Horsf.). 
Not obtained by Dr. Malcolm Smith's collector. 

Recorded from Pulo Condorc by de Pousarges (Mission Pavie 
Indo-Chine, Etudes Diverses III, 1904, p. 544). 

7. Ratufa melanopepla condorensis Kloss. 

Antea, p. 71. 

New for the islands. 

8. Scinrus germaini A. M.-Edw. 

Sciurus germanii A Milne- Edward.*, Rev. et Mag. Zoul. 1867, p. 193 
(Pulo Condore) 

5 2 ad., Pulo Condore, 8— 10 Sept. 1919 [Nos. 2707—11/ 
CBK. ]. 

Intense black all over, lustrous on the tail and upper parts. 

This squirrel is so isolated that it is difficult to decide whe- 
ther other black animals should be treated as subspecies of it. One. 
8. albivexilli mihi (P. Z. S. 1916, p. 47) occurs only on Koh Kut Id., 
S. E. Siam ; while the second, S. nox Wroughton (Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (8) II, 1908, p. 397) seems confined to a small area of Siam 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



PULO CONDORS AND ITS MAMMALS. 



81 



lying between Cape Liant and Sriracba to the north. The 
Koh Kut animal, besides being larger, has a white tail tip: but the 
other only differs in greater size. 

It is curious that the isolated squirrels from Siam and Pulo 
Condore should resemble each other so closely in colour, while 
Macaca afciceps irus, from Koh Kram, an island a few miles from 
Cape Liant, also resembles the Pulo Condore Macaque much more 
nearly than it does animals from the adjacent Siamese mainland. 

Here too we have a case, as with the Tupaia, of another 
Pulo Condore animal more closely resembling forms from Siam than 
others of the nearer parts of Indo-China. 

Measurements of Sciurus germaiiii. 



No. 


2707 


2708 


2709 


2710 


2711 


Sex ... 


2 


5 


• 

9 


9 


9 




Teeth 
much 
worn. 


Teeth 

slightly 
worn. 


Teeth 
slightly 
worn. 


Teeth 
slightly 
worn. 


Teeth 
worn. 


Head and body* 


190 


185 


180 


185 


195 


Tail* ... 


168 


165 


160. 


160 


160 


Hind foot, s.u.* ... 


39 


36 


38 


37 


40 


Ear* ... 


18 


19 


18 


20 


18 


Skull and teeth : — 


- 










Greatest length 


47.5 


47.3 


45.8 


48.0 


48.8 


Condylo-basilar length ... 


41.0 


40.0 


37.5 


39.8 


41.3 


Palatilar length 


19.4 


200 


18.8 


19.0 


20.3 


Diastema 


10.7 


10.5 


9.9 


9.5 


11.0 


Upper molar row (alveoli) 


9.0 


8.9 


8.9 


9.4 


9.5 


Median nasal length 


13.0 


14.1 


14.0 


14.0 


14.8 


Interorbital breadth 


17.6 


16.7 


16.0 


16.2 


17.2 


Zygomatic breadth 


28.3 


28.0 


27.0 


27.5 


29.0 



* Native collector's measurements, taken in the flesh. 



VOL. IV. NO. 2, 1920. 



82 MR. C BODEN KLOSS ON 

'6 Rattus rattus germaini (A. M.-Edw.). 

Mus germaini A. Milne-Edwards, Rech. Mamm., 1874, p. 289 
(Pulo Condore) ; Bonhote, Fasciculi Mibtyense-, Zool. 1, 1903, p. 37 
("Cochin China." Errore?) ; id., P. Z. S, 1905, p. 390. 

Mus germani de Pousarges, Mission Pavie Indochine, Etudes 
Diverses, III, 1904, p. 548 (Poulo-Condore). 

1 6 ad., 1 6 vixad., 1 6 subad., Pulo Condove, 8 — 13 Sept. 
1919 [ Nos 2712— 4/CBK. ]. Dr. Malcolm Smith's collector. 

Above : — a grizzle of ochraceous and black ( the subadult 
animal ochraceous-buff and black ) : base of fur dark grey showing 
somewhat on the sides and lower parts of the limbs. Hands and 
feet white. Below : — the adult whitish on the neck, the remaining 
part creamy, the bases of the hairs scarcely grey : scrotum partly 
rufous ( j)ossibly stained ). The scarcely adult animal ivory, the 
basas grey where the white underparts meet the colour of the 
sides. The subadult example almost throughout greyish white 
below owing to the pronounced grey bases. Tails dark throughout. 

Skulls robust without any peculiar features, except that in the 
oldest and youngest specimens the palatal foramina ( which are, 
combined, long ovals ) are rather abruptly contracted for the an- 
terior two millimetres. Rostrum fairly long and rather slender. 

I cannot hold with Bonhote that this rat has anything to do 
with R. griseiventer ( Fascic. Mai., t. c, pp. 35—8): it is a member of 
the coarser, more heavily built, white-bellied section of rattus rats, 
which are quite distinct from that animal and its allies. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



PULO CONDORE AND ITS MAMMALS. 



83 



Measurements of Rattus rattus germaini. 



~lxo. 
Sex 



Head and body* 

Tail* 

Hind foot, s.u.* 

Ear* 

Skull and teeth: — 

Greatest length ... ' ... 
Oondylo-basilar length 
Diastema 

Upper molar row (alveoli) 
Combined palatal foramina 
Median nasal length 
Breadth combined nasals ... 
Zygomatic breadth 



2712 



Teeth 

lightly 

worn. 



190 

225 

37 

24 



2713 
9 



Teeth 

scarcely 

worn. 



174 

221 

35 

24 



2714 
6 



Subad., 
teeth 



44.0 


43.0 


39.4 


39.0 


37.0 


34.2 


12.3 


11.0 


9.9 


7.2 


7.9 


7.1 


8x34 


7.8 x 3 


7.1 x3 


17.0 


15.8 


13.7 


5.1 


4.5 


4.8 


20.1 


20.0 


18.3 



159 

165 

39 

22 



* Native collector's measurements, taken in the flesh. 



VOL. IV, NO. 2, 19-20. 



85 
SOME BIRDS FROM PULO CONDORE. 

By H. C. Robinson and C. Boden Kloss. 

Mr. W. J. F. Williamson, who sent his collector to Pulo 
Condore with Dr. Malcolm Smith's men in September 1919, has not 
attained the success he deserved in investigating the avifauna of 
the island, for the collector was, unfortunately, laid up with dysentery 
for a week out of the 17 or 18 days he spent there. So the set of 
specimens brought back was not as large, nor the exploration as 
exhaustive, as it might have been. 

It is curious that more seems to have been learnt of the birds 
of this little group of islands a century and a half ago than in more 
recent times : Linnaeus recorded the Jungle-fowl as Phasianus 
gallus in 1766; Gmelin described the Shama, Turdus macrourus ; 
and Sparrman, the Roseate Tern, Larus polo-condore (better known 
as Sterna dougalli Mont.), in 1788; while Dampier (1687), King 
(1780), and Crawfurd and Finlayson (1822)* wrote of Parrots and 
" Parakites ", Doves and Pigeons. 

If, therefore, I am correct in believing that the islands have 
not received attention in later days, Mr. Williamson has added con- 
siderably to our knowledge of its birds in spite of his ill-luck : 
nevertheless there must still be, comparatively speaking, a good 
many more to be met with and it is to be hoped that Mr. Williamson 
may be able to send his collectors again to the island. 

The present collection was submitted to my colleague for 
determination, but owing to press of work and illness Mr. Robinson 
was unable to deal with more than half the species, among which he 
distinguishes a new form of Mixornis rubricapilla. C.B.K. 

- 1. Muscadivora aenea subsp. ( ? ). 

Muscadivora aenea ? subsp. Hnrtett, Nov. Zool. XXV, 1918, 
p. 346 ( Hainan ). 

1 9. "Iris red, bill green, feet red". Total length, 405. 
Wing, 228 mm. 

The material available is not sufficient to determine the status 
of this bird, which probably represents a subspecies as yet unnamed 

*Vide antea pp. 74, 75. 
VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



86 MESSRS. ROBINSON AND KLOSS ON 

but which also occurs in Cochin China and possibly Hainan. The 
vinaceous colour on the lower surface and the head is more pro- 
nounced than in most specimens from the Malay Peninsula, which 
are M. ae. aenea, though this can be matched in birds from Cambodia 
and East Siam. The size is about that of the South Indian and 
Ceylon M. ae. pusilla (Blyth); smaller than M. ae. sylvatica (Tick.), 
from which it also differs in the vinaceous ear-coverts. The nape 
and upper mantle are also darker grey than in any Malayan speci- 
mens we have examined. 

In this connexion Hartert's remarks (supra) should be studied. 
We are reluctantly compelled to use the name Muscadivora for the 
genus instead of the more familiar Carjjophaga, as the case for the 
former name seems unanswerable. 

-f 2. Tringoides hypoleucos. 

Tringa hypoleucos, Linn., Syst. Nat. i. 1766, p 250 (Europe). 
1 ?. "Iris dark brown, bill black." Total length, 310. 
Wing, 111 mm. 

-j-S. Bubulcus lucidus coromanda. 

Cancroma coromanda, Bodd., Tabl. PI. Enl. 1783, p 54 (Ooromandel 
Coast). 

1 2. "Iris yellow, bill deep yellow, legs black". Total 
length, 495. Wing, 237 mm. 

The presence of the Cattle Egret on an island of this descrip- 
tion is somewhat unusual. The bird is in winter plumage. 

4-4. Alcedo ispida bengalensis. 

Alcedo bengalensis, Gva., Syst. Nut. i, 1788, p. 450 (Bengal). 

1 6. "Iris brown, bill black, feet red." Total length, 170. 

Wing, 72 mm. 

The bird, which is not quite adult, calls for no special 

remark. 

-V-5. Collocalia francica germaini. 

Collocalia germaini Oustalet, Bull. Soc. Philom., 1876, p. 1 (Pulo 

Condore, Cochin China). 
Collocalia francica merguiensis subsp. b., Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. 

Mus. XVI, 1892, p. 506 (Mergui, Tenasserim). 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME BIRDS FROM PULO CONDORE. 87 

Colloccdia francica germaini Obeiholser, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, 1906, p. 201. 

1 cT, 4 9. " Iris dark brown, bill black, feet pale fleshy." 
Total length, c? 115; 9 119, 121, 120; 120. Wing, d 1 108; 9 123, 
123, 119, 116 mm. 

With these fresh topotypes in hand we fancied we could keep 

apart from them birds representative of those to which Hartert 

gave the name merguiensis, on account of the less greenish gloss in 

the latter, which appeared to us to have the uppar parts more 

brownish owing to the gloss being purplish. On submitting 

specimens to Dr. Hartert, however (who has himself withdrawn 

merguiensis, vide Oberholser, supra), he wrote us that he could 

still admit no differences. We must, therefore, disregard our own 

opinion. 

-f» 6. Cypselus pacificus pacificus. 

Hirundo pacijica, L:ith., Ind. Orn. Suppl., 1801, p. 58 (New South 

Wales). 
Micropus pacificus, Hartert, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. xvi, 1892, 

p. 448. 
Id, 29. "Iris dark brown, bill black, feet pale flesh." 
Total length, d 192; 9 194, 196. Wing, 6 189; 9 188, 186 mm. 

These birds slightly exceed the maximum given by Hartert 
for the species, viz,, wing 184.5 mm., but cannot be separated from 
the typical form. 

■4-7. Rhopodytes tristis longicaudatus. 

Phoenicophceus longicaudatus Blj'th, Joutn. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, X, 

1841, p. 923 (Tenasserim). 
Rhopodytes tristis hainanus Hartert, Nov. Zool. XVII, 1910, p. 218 
(Hainan) ; Robinson &, Khis*, Ibis, 1919, p. 427 (Cochin-China 
and South Annam). 
3 d, 1 9. " Iris reddish brown, bill green, feet pale blue " (?), 
Total length, 6 545, 470, 520 ; 9 509. Wing, 6 159, 150, 160; 
9 155 mm. 

These birds agree in size and colour with Tenasserim speci- 
mens : Hainan birds also agree in size with Blyth's overlooked 
race. Topotypical examples vary a little : some being paler below 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



4- 



88 MESSRS. ROBINSON AND KLOSS ON 

with a dirty-buff wash on foreneck and breast, while others are 
darker below, with the wash less evident. The four Pulo Condore 
birds resemble the latter. 

-f 8. Aegithina tiphia. 

Motacilla tiphia, Linn., Syst. Nat., i, 1766, p. 331 (Bengal). 

2 9. " Iris dull white, bill above blackish brown, below dull 
white, legs pale blue". Total length, 145, 135. Wing, 60, 61 mm. 

There is nothing special to remark on these birds; they can 
be exactly matched by others from An nam and other parts of the 
Indo-Malayan region. 

"f 9. Pycnonotus finlaysoni. 

Pycnonotus finlaysoni, Strickland, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, xiii, 
1844, p. 411 (<? Malaysian Ids. Errore: substitute " Siam " ). 

3 d , 2 2. " Iris reddish brown, bill blackish brown, legs pale 
brown." Total length, 6 200, 190, 192; 9 180, 192. Wing, 6 86, 
83, 79; 9 76, 79 mm. 

The specimens are all in moult and the wing measurements 
therefore are not reliable. 

This bulbul, which is characteristically Indo-Chinese, is very 
constant is its colours and measurements, and in the very large 
series before us, ranging from Malacca to Pulo Condore, we have 
been unable to recognize any local differences whatever. The 
present birds are rather bright, but this is entirely due to their being 
in quite fresh feather. 

-f- 10. Mixornis rubricapilla condorensis Robinson, subsp. no v. 

The dullest form of the species ; pileum with the rufous tinge 
duller and much reduced, general colour of the mantle more 
olivaceous, less russet, external aspect of the wing very little 
browner than, the mantle and back. 

Type. Adult male. Pulo Condore, 8th September 1919, 
collected by Mr. W. J. F. Williamson's native collector. Three 
specimens examined. " Iris dull yellowish brown, bill above blackish 
brown, below dull white, feet greenish yellow". Total length, 
6 138,* 142; 2 130. Wing, 6 63,* 64 ; 9 58 (imp.). 

*Type of the subspecies. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. S r JC.' SIAM. 



SOME BIRDS FROM PULO CONDORE. 89 

This race, which is just separable on the characters above 
given, shows an even greater departure from the typical form, than 
the forms inhabiting the southern Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, in 
the reduction of the russet of the plumage, especially on the pileum. 

-f 11. Kittacincla malabarica macrura. 

Turdus macrourus Gin., Syst. Nat. 1788, p. 820 (Pulo Condore). 

3 6. "Iris brown, bill black, feet pale fleshy". Total 
length, 255, 220, 165, Wing, 94, 92, 88 mm. 

Mr. Williamson's specimens of this long-wanted bird, though 
not forming a very good series, enable us to state that it represents 
a good subspecies, the males being paler on the breast than con- 
tinental forms and with less black in the ouher tail feathers than in 
any other race except K. m. suavis Sclater, from S. E. Borneo, 
which is very distinct. The subspecies is confined to Pulo Condore. 

-v 12. Locustella certhiola. 

Motacilla certhiola, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. I, 1827, p. 509 
(beyond Lake Baikal). 

Locustella certhiola, Hartert, Yog. Palaarkt. Faun, i, 1910, p. 550. 

Id, 2$. "Iris reddish brown, bill above blackish brown, 
below pale pinkish brown, legs pale pinkish brown". Total length, 
6 140; ? 153, 150. Wing, 6 61 ; $ 66, 67 mm. 

These specimens, evidently on migration, are all fairly adult ; 
they have the under-surface whitish, without any tinge of yellow, 
the breast tinged with buffy brown and the under tail-coverts 
brownish, paler at the tips. The species is not uncommon on migra- 
tion during the winter months in the Malay Peninsula and on small 
islands in the Straits of Malacca, but appears to be only a bird of 
passage, making a very brief stay. With us, moreover, quite young 
birds, which are very different in colour from the adults, are much 
more numerous. In these the whole under-surface is yellowish, 
the flanks and under wing-coverts deep brown with a yellowish 
tinge, and the foreneck, breast and flanks with narrow brownish 

black streaks. 

-\ 13. Orthotomus atrognlaris. 

Orthotomus atrogularis Temminck, Planches Coloriees, 1836, text in 
Livr. 101. (Malacca). 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



90 MESSRS. ROBINSON AND KLOSS ON 

29 " Iris deep yellow ; maxilla brown, mandible pale fleshy ; 
feet pale fleshy". Total length, 122, 110. Wing, 46, 47 mm. 

|" 14. Phylloscopus borealis borealis. 
Phyllojmeuste borealis, Blasius, Naumannia, 1858, p. 313 (Ochotsk 

Sea). 
19. "Iris dark brown, bill above brownish black, below 
yellow, legs brownish." Total length, 120. Wing, 64 mm. 

Though one might have expected from the locality that this 
Willow-Warbler would prove to belong to the Chinese form, P. b. 
xantJiodryas. (Swinh., P. Z. S., 1863, p. 296), the very small first 
primary shows that it must be referred to the typical race. 

-4* 15. Dicrurus annectens. 

Buchanga annectens Hodgson, Ind. Rev., I, 1837, p. 326 (Nepal). 

1 6. "Iris reddish brown, bill and feet black." Total 
length, 275. Wing, 147. Tail, 135. Bill, breadth at nostrils 10 : 
height at chin, 11 mm. 

An undoubted example of the Crow-billed, and not of the 
Black, Drongo as one would perhaps have expected. The specimen 
is in immature plumage, considerably spotted with white on the 
abdomen, under wing- and under tail-coverts. 

— f-16. Dissemurus paradiseus malayensis. 

Edolius malayensis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal. XXVIII, 
1859, p. 272 (Penang). 

Dissemurus paradiseus malayensis, Kloss, Ibis, 1918, pp. 229, 518. 

4 6, 6 9. "Iris brown or reddish-brown, bill and feet 
black." Wing, 6 154, 157, 159, 166; 9 153, 155, 159, 161, 
161, 165 man. 

The wing lengths of these birds are about the same as in D. 
p. paradiseus of Central Siam, but the crests are much smaller and 
much less laterally compressed and curved, though more bush)'. Pulo 
Condore birds and birds of Cochin-China are not to be distinguished 
from D. p. malayensis to which we accord a range in the Malay 
Peninsula from the Dindings to Mergui. The Continental Paradise- 
Drongos are much affected by latitude, and their crests increase in 
size as they go northwards. D. p. platurws, of the southern part of 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME BIRDS FROM PULO CONDORE. 91 

the Malay Peninsula, has the smallest crest : then come progressively 

D. p. malayensis, with range as above, and farther northwards, 

D. p. paradiseus extending from Central Tenasserim eastwards to 

Annam ; the doubtfully distinct D. p. rangoonensis occurs in the 

southern half of Burma, and to the east in the same latitudes is 

found D. p. johni in Hainan : largest crested of all is D. p. grandis. 

from Nepal to Yunnan. 

The same thing happens in India, where D. p. malabaricus 

has a smaller crest than grandis, and D. p. ceylonensis one smaller 

still. 

Hp 17. Passer montanus malaccensis. 

Passer montanus malaccensis Dubois, Faun. Yert. de la Belgique, 

Oiseaux, I, 1887, p. 574 (Malacca). 
H, 2 ?. "Iris pale brown, bill blackish brown, feet pale 
brown". Total length, 6 125 ; $ 130,125. Wing, tf 67; 9, 63, 67 mm 



Vol. IV, No. 2, 1920. 



93 
REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS COLLECTED ON PULO CONDORE. 

By Malcolm A. Smith, f.z.s. 

With 1 Plate. 

The collection of reptiles and batrachians made was not 
large, and it seems unlikely that it fully represents the herpetologi- 
cal fauna of the Island. In batrachians, considering the number of 
small streams met with by the collectors, it is unusually poor. Two 
ground Geckoes were obtained which appear to be new to science, 
and they are here described for the first time. The type series of 
each form has been presented to the British Museum of Natural 
History. 

The numbers referred to throughout are the registered num- 
bers of my own private collection. 

REPTILES. 

Draco maculatus haasii Boettger. 

Draco maculatus haasii, Smith and Kloss, Jouin. N. H. Soc. Smm, 
i. p. 239 (1915). 

8 specimens. 

In the absence of any blue spot at the base of the gular 
pouch, these specimens agree with the form described by Kloss and 
myself from the Chantabun coast. They are, however, distinctly 
larger, and the consideration which we gave to size is evidently of 
no value. The slight difference between D. m. haasii and the typi- 
cal form, therefore, is one of colour only, but as it appears to be 
confined to a definite geographical area, the name may be retained. 
The distribution of this form is very limited, and includes the S. E. 
portion of Siam and adjacent region in Cochin Chinx. From the 
Dong Rek mountains (E. Siam) I have obtained both forms, but 
elsewhere in Siam, as well as in Southern Annam, the typical form 

only. 

The colouration of Draco maculatus in life has never yet 

been fully described. The wing membranes above x&cy from orange 

or reddish-brown to pale yellow, yellowish -green or green. The 

markings are equally variable and range from a few black spots 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



94 DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 

only, to a membrane so thickly covered by them that they almost 
obscure the ground colour. These variations do not depend upon 
sex. Inner side of gular flap bright yellow, gular pouch, orange, 
brown, or yellow. 

Gymnodactylus condorensis, sp. nov. 

Snout obtusely pointed; ear opening small, vertically oval, 
one-third the diameter of the eye. Snout with small keeled 
granules, back of head with minute granules, interspersed with 
larger ones; rostral one and a half times as broad as high, with 
median cleft above, entering the nostril ; supranasals small, 
separated from each other by a small scale; 10 or 11 upper and 
8 or 9 lower labials ; mental moderate, triangular ; first pair of 
chin-shields in contact with each other and followed by a series of 
smaller shields ; body and limbs above with small granules, inter- 
mixed with larger, rounded, subtrihedral tubercles; lateral fold 
from axilla ' to groin usually well marked ; throat covered with 
small granules, ventrals small, cycloid, imbricate, 30-38 across the 
middle of the body ; a group of 4-5 praeanal pores and a series of 
enlarged scales along the under surface of the thigh ; no pubic 
groove ; tail round, covered with small flat scales ; enlarged pointed 
tubercles in series above and broad transverse plates below. 

Greyish-brown above, with large dark spots usually arranged 
transversely across the back ; a dark streak behind the eye meeting 
its fellow on the neck; below pale greyish. 

Allied to G. consobrinoides Annandale, from Tenasserim. 

8 specimens examined. Type series, 4023, 4024, 4027, 
4030, 4031. 

Me&surments in millimetres. 





6 


9 


\ 


4023 


4024 


Head and body ... 


80 


68 


Tail 


100 


85 


Fore limb 


33 


25 


Hind limb (to articulation) ... 


43 


37 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 





3. 




1. 2. GYMNODACTYLUS CONDORENSIS 



3. GONATODES GLAUCUS. 



Explanation of plate. 



1. Gymnodactylus condorensis. (No. 4023). 

2. „ „ (No. 4030). 

3. Gonatodes glaucus (No. 4032). 



REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS COLLECTED ON PULO CONDORE. 95 

G-onatodes glaucus, sp. nov. 

Snout long and rounded, longer than the distance between 
the eye and the ear-opening ; ear-opening vertically oval, about 
half the diameter of the eye ; head covered with small granules, those 
on the snout keeled, and larger than those on the back of the 
head. Rostral large, twice as broad as high, with a median cleft 
above ; nostril bordered anteriorly by the rostral, a supranasal and 
the 1st labial; 8-10 upper and 7-8 lower labials; mental very large, 
triangular, with a small azygos shield at its apex ; two pairs of 
chin-shields, first much larger than second. Body above covered with 
small granules, and with enlarged tubercles on the back arranged 
in about ten fairly regular longitudinal series ; an oblique series of 
tubercles passing backwards and inwards from above the tympanum, 
and another series parallel to it in front of the shoulder. Ventral 
scales cycloid, imbricate, smooth. No femoral or praeanal pores ; 
a series of slightly enlarged scales along the underside of each thigh. 
Tail cylindrical, suddenly constricted* after the postanal swelling; a 
paired series of enlarged pointed tubercles above on either side of a 
median groove, and enlarged transverse plates below which com- 
mence at the constriction. Limbs long, covered with small granular 
scales above ; a series of 6-7 very large transverse scales beneath the 
tibia ; digits long and slender, the basal portion not -dilated, with 
enlarged, transverse scales below. The hind limb reaches the neck. 

Grey above, with large black spots on the neck and shoulders, 
and sometimes a few, less distinct, on the back ; the enlarged series 
of tubercles on the neck and body, whitish ; below greyish-white. 

I cannot discover any close ally to this new species. The 
possession of enlarged plates beneath the tibia appears to be unique 
in the genus. 

49 specimens examined. Type series, 4032, 4033, 4043, 
4047, 4062, 4068, 4071, 4079. 

*The constriction I at first regarded as due to a reproduced tail, 
but as it is present in every example, I presume the character to be 
normal. 



VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



96 DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 

Measurements in millimetres. 

6 9 

4044 4067 

Head and body ... ... 64 60 

Tail ... ... 72 86 

Fore limb ),,.•,,. ... 30 26 

Hind limb } t° articulation 43 40 

Gecko verticillatus Laurenti. 
2 specimens. 

Calotes versicolor (Daud.). 

1 specimen. 

Lygosoma olivaceum (Gray). 

i 1 adult, No. 4019. 28. scales round the body, dorsals feebly 

5-carinate. 

Barbour is in error in stating (Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., xliv. 

(1), Nov. 1912) that the type locality of this species is on the coast 

of Indo-China. Prince of Wales Island referred to by Gra}^ is no 

doubt the Island of Penang, by which name it was at that time 

known. 

Tropidonotus piscator (Schneid.). 

Adult 9, No. 4013. Scale rows, 19. 17. v. 142., c. 28 (tail 

docked). Olive brown, with black spots arranged quincuncialty. 

Ventrals edged with black. 

Holarchus* cyclurus (Dura. & Bib.). 

2 examples. Ad. rf, No. 4015. Ttl. length, 690, tail, 140. 
Scale rows, 21. 19. 17. 15., v. 167., c. 54. Brown above, the edges 
of some of the scales coloured black so as to form an indistinct 
network. Head uniform brown ; belly white. 

Juv. 6, No. 4016. Scale rows, 19. 21. 19. 17. 15., v., 166., 
c. 58. Colour as in the adult, but the black network quite distinct, 
and the usual generic markings present on the head and nape. 
Holarchus violaceus (Cant). 

No. 4017. Ttl. length, 430; tail, 60. Scale rows, 17. 15; v. 
171, c. 36. Reddish-brown above, with 37 narrow black bars on the 

*The generic name Situates is preoccupied fur n group of Mammals. 
Stejneger, Heipet. Japan, p. 353 (1907). 

JOfRN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS COLLECTED ON PULO CONDORE. 97 

body, and 6 on the tail. Belly powdered with grey in the posterior 
half, with a tendency to form quadrangular spots at the sides of the 
ventral scales. Head uniform brown. Tail white below. 
Dryophis prasinus Boie. 
Ad. 9, No. 4011. Hf. gr. 6, No. 4012. 

The female appears to be the largest on record. It measures 
1970 mm. in total length, tail 670. 

Scale rows, 15. 13., v. 219., c. 166. 

„ , 15. 13. 11., v. 229., c. 178. 
Colour of both. Leaf green above, paler below; tip of tail, 



buff. 



Chrysopelea ornata (Shaw). 
Hf. gr. No. 4014. Scale rows, 17. 15. 13., v. 234., c. 138. 
Colour as in Siamese examples, Boulenger's form D. 

BATRACHIANS. 
Oxyglossus laevis martensii (Peters). 
3 examples. Nos. 4091, 2, 3. 
Aoree entirely with examples from Siam. 
Rana erythraea (Schleg.). 

1 example. No. 4020. 

Bufo melanosticus Schneid. 

2 examples. Nos. 4021, 4022. 



VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



99 



ON A SMALL COLLECTION OF MAMMALS FROM CAMBODIA. 

By C. Boden Kloss, f.z.s. 

In 1918 Dr. Malcolm Smith's reptile collectors spent the 
greater part of December in Cambodia: they brought back, as 
usual, some well prepared mammal skins ^vhich have been referred 
to me for determination. 

The mammals of Cambodia have been so little investigated 
that the specimens, though few, are worth putting on record : 
amongst them is what appears to be a new race of striped squirrel 
(Tamiops). 

The collectors seem first to have visited Pak Kong, i.e., the 
mouth of the Kong river. This, apparently, is about ten miles 
north of Koh Kong (the Island of Kong) and only five or six miles 
beyond Ok Yam, the most southerly place I collected at in 1914 
(vide P. Z. S. 1916, p. 28 and map, pi. 1). They next went to " Koh 
Kape " (Island of Kape) : this I am unable to discover, but the label 
on the only specimen preserved states that it is near Koh Kong. 
Thence they sailed southwards to Sre Umbel (which will be found 
on any decent map of Cambodia), and proceeding up-river, directly 
northwards for about twenty miles, stopped at Kompong Som. 
Afterwards they visited Kompong Som Bon : I cannot trace this 
place but it cannot be far from Kompong Som. The collection was, 
therefore, made in the lowlands of the Cambodian coast region. 

1. Tupaia glis cambodiana Kloss. 

Tupaia glis cambodiana Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, III, 
1919, p. 357 (Klong Yai, S.E. Siam). 

Tupaia concolor Kloss (nee Bonh.), P.Z.S. 1916, y>. 36. 

1 6 ad., 1 9 ad., Kompong Som Bon, near Sre Umbel, S.W. 
Cambodia. 21st-23rd Dec. 1918 [Nos 2715, 6/CBK.]. Dr. Malcolm 
Smiths's collector. 

This race is more like T. g. belangeri from S. E. and S. W. 
Siam than T. g. concolor of S. Annam, differing from it in rather 
richer colour and less developed neck-stripes. It is much more 
warmly coloured than T. g. concolor in which the neck-stripes are 
practically obsolete. 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



100 MR. C. BODEN KLOSS ON 

These two specimens have a rather more pronounced buffy 
eye-ring than the original series from the southern extremity of 
S. E. Siam. 

2. Ratufa melanopepla leucogenys Kloss. 

Ratufa melanoj)epla leucogenys Kloss, P. Z. S. 1916, p. 43 (vicinity 
of Krat, S. E Siam) ; id., Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, II, 
1916- 7, pp. 15, 306. 
Sciurus javensis Gray (nee Schreber), P. Z. S,, 1861, p. 137. 
12 ad., 1$ vixad., Kompong Som, near Sre Umbel, S. W. 
Cambodia, 13th December 1918 [ Nos. 2717, 8/CBK. ]. Dr. Malcolm 
Smith's collector. 

In colour the adult exactly agrees with a paratype : the 
younger animal is rather more ochraceous on the fore-limbs and 
under parts, and there is no pronounced extension of buff over the 
upper surface of the hind foot which is merely slightly grizzled. 
3. Sciurus ferruginous cinnamomeus Temm. 

Sciurus cinnamomeus Temminck, Esquisses Zool. Guin£, 1853, 
p. 250 (Cambodia). 

Sciurus splendens Gray, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 137, (Cambodia). 

Sciurus ferrugineus cinnamomeus Kloss, P. Z. S., 1916, p. 45. 

3d 1 ad., Pak Kong, near Koh Kong, S. W. Cambodia, 3rd 
Dec. 1918 [Nos. 2719 - 21/CBK.] 

1 ? vixad., Koh Kape near Koh Kong, 7th Dec. 1918 
[No. 2722 CBK.]. Dr Malcolm Smith's collector. 

These represent Gray's var. 2, and do not differ from the 
majority of the specimens I obtained in S. E. Siam. Of Sciurus 
cinnamomeus Temminck wrote " Patrie, La Peninsule de Malacca, 
dans les environs de Cambodge ". No red squirrel occurs in the 
Malay Peninsula : the type locality is therefore Cambodia. 

4. Menetes berdmorei mouhoti (Gray). 

Sciurus mouhotii, Gray, P.Z.S., 1861, p. 136 (Cambodia). 

Menetes berdmorei mouhoti, Klo9P, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 

III, 1919, p. 372. 
1 6 ad., Kompong Som, near Sre Umbel, S. W. Cambodia, 
16th Dec. 1918 [No. 2725/CBK.]. Dr Malcolm Smith's collector. 

No median dark dorsal stripe and the lateral ones barely in- 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



A SMALL COLLECTION OF MAMMALS FROM CAMBODIA. 101 

dicated; pale stripes buffy, sides between them a grizzle of black 
and brown ; under parts white suffused with buffy, strongly on 
abdomen and thighs. 

Practically a topotype. 

5. Tamiops macclellandi dolphoides, subsp. nov. 

2 $ ad., KompongSom Bon, near Sre - Umbel, S.W. Cambodia, 
21st Dec. 1918 [Nos 2723, 4/CBK.]. Dr Malcolm Smith's collector. 

Like T. m. rodolphi (A. M.-Edw.) of Eastern Cochin-China 
but paler, less richly coloured throughout except for the tail which 
is similar. 

The upper parts, including the yellow stripes, less suffused 
with ochraceous or tawny, the hands and feet paler buff. Under 
parts and inner sides of limbs antimony-yellow instead of ochraceous- 
orange : lips and chin whitish buff. 

The interruption across the shoulders of the outer pair 
of pale stripes distinguishes this animal from the form occurring 
in South Eastern Siam.* 

Type. No. 2723/CBK. 

I have ventured to name these examples, though they may 
only represent a seasonal colour phase of T. m. rodolphi ; but I do 
not think that animals from so far south in the Indo-Chinese Penin- 
sula undergo such a change of colour. 

6. Rattus rajah finis Kloss. 

Epimys surifer finis Kloss, P. Z. S. 1916, p. 51 (Klong Menao, 

S. E Siam). 
1 6 ad., 1 6 vizad., Kompong Som, near Sre Umbel, S. W. 
Cambodia, 16 -18th Dec. 1918 Nos. 2726, 7, 9/ CBK.]. 

1 6 ad., Kompong Som Bon, near Sre Umbel, 23rd Dec. 1918 
[No. 2728/CBK.]. Dr. Malcolm Smith's collector. 

Typical specimens of this race of clay-backed white-bellied 
forest rat. 

* Tamiops macclellandi liantis Kloss, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 
III, p. 370. Dec. 1919 (Satihip, near Cape Liant). 

Tamiops lylei Thomas, Ann. <fe Mag. Nat. Hist (9), V, p. 307. 
March 1920 (Sea-coast, 50 miles south of Bangkok). 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



102 A SMALL COLLECTION OF MAMMALS FROM CAMBODIA, 

7. Tragulus kanchil affinis Gray. 

Trayulus affinis Gray, P.Z.S , 1861, p. 138 Cambodia. 

Tragxdus kanchil affinis, Kloss, P. Z. S. 1916, p. 63. 

1 $ ad., Kompong Som, near Sre Umbel, S. W. Cambodia. 
16th Dec. 1918. [No. 2730/CBK.]. Dr. Malcolm Smith's collector. 
Head and body, 400; tail, 65 ; hindfoot, c.u., 112 ; ear, 34. Skull : 
greatest length, 92 ; greatest breadth 45 mm. 

Practically a topotype. 



JOTJRN* NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



103 



TWO NEW RACES OF SCIURUS FINLAYSONI 
BY C. BODEN KLOSS, F. Z. S. 

Examination of a series of " white " squirrels from practi- 
cally the type locality of Sciurus finlaysoni tachardi (Robinson),! 
which the collector of the type, Mr. T. H. Lyle, C.M.G., informs me 
is in North Siam on the Nam Nan, some 30 miles north-east up 
river from Utaradit, towards the mouth of the Nam Pat, 
convinces me that at some period, or season, this race assumes a 
wholly or partial bay pelage. Animals which do not undergo this 
change must be regarded as distinct subspecies and I recognise the 
following additional continental forms : — 

1. Sciurus finlaysoni prachin, subsp. no v. 

Sciurus finlaysoni, Kloss, Journ. N. H. S. Siam, II, pp. 16 
30 (1916). 

Pelage always rich creamy : only the concealed bases of 
the hairs grey. 

Type. Adult male from Krabin, Central Siam, obtained by 
Messrs. E. G. Herbert and Malcolm Smith's collectors on 11 Nov. 
1915. No. 2048/CBK. 

Specimens examined. Five from the type locality and one 
from Chanteuk. Eastern Siam. 

For measurements (external dimensions taken by native 
collector) and further details see reference cited above. 

2. Sciurus finlaysoni rajasima, subsp. nov. 

Sciurus finlaysoni finlaysoni, Kloss, Journ. N.H.S. Siam 1,1915, 

p. 225 (Lopburi). 
Sciurus finlaysoni, id. op. cit., II, 1916, pp. 83, 87.(Pak Jong). 
Sc. finlaysoni tachardi, id. op. cit., Ill, 1919, pp. 368, 401, 

(Lat Bua Kao). 
Pelage creamy but with the grey basal portions of the hairs so 
increased that the general appearance on the upper surface of head, 
body and limbs is often that of a greyish animal with cream-tipped 
hairs. Type. Adult female from Lat Bua Kao, E. Siam, collected 
by C. Boden Kloss on 10 October, 1916. No 2132/CBK. 

1 Callosciurus finlaysoni tachardi Robinson, Journ. F. M. S. Mus., 
VII, p. 36 (1916). 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



104 TWO NEW RACES OF SCIURUS FINLAYSONI 

Specimens examined. Fifteen from the type locality, one 
from Pak Jong, E. Siam, and two from Lopburi, Central Siam. 

For measurements and further details sec references cited 
above. 

The relationships of many Indo-Chinese squirrels are very 
difficult to trace. 

8. f. prachin is only a large mainland form of the little 
island race 8. f. finlaysoni which perhaps, through S. f. rajasima, is 
doubly linked up with the small greyish grizzled island animals 
S. f. folletti and S. f. trotteri which certainly belong to the species. 
Through the last of these there may be connection with the large 
black 8. albivexilli, with white-tipped tail, of Koh Kut ; and thence 
to the wholly black animals, the large S. nox. of the mainland and 
the little S. germaini of Pulo Condore. Still further the coloured 
phase of tachardi may show that the ferrugineus group of squirrels 
are only really races of finlaysoni. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 105 

No. I. A Habitat of Schomburgk's Deer (Gervus schomburgki). 

In a paper by Major E. Seidenfaden in Volume XIII of the 
Journal of the Siam Society, the following passage occurs (Part 3, 
May 1920, pp. 49, 50):— 

" In 1919 I met several hunters from Ampho' Pu Kio (now 
called Pak Bang) who told me that a tribe called Kha Bong Liiang 
(the withered leaves' savages) or Kha Tarn Bang (the savages who 
can make themselves invisible) lived in the jungle on the slopes of 
the big Pu Kio mountain, which to the west separates Ampho Pak 
Bang from the Petchabun changvad. These Kha are under middle 
height, well built, but very dark hued ; their hair is lank and 
straight as that of mongoloid races, not curly as that of negroids ; 
both sexes go entirely naked ; they do not construct houses but 
live under some hastily erected leaf shelters like the Semang ; and 
they leave these shelters, after some few days (hence the name 
Kha Dong Liiang). Their only weapon is a sort of wooden javelin, 
the point of which is hardened in fire ; they are courageous and able 
hunters and chase and kill both the one-horned and the two-horned 
rhinoceros (Kaso), the sladang or Kating ox, deer and wild pigs and 
that rare animal, Schumburgk's deer, which is living just in this, 
region." 

This locality is either within, or very near, the area to which 
Mr. P. R. Kemp considers Gervus schomburgki to be restricted 
(Jonrn. N. H. S. Siam III, p. 7), and helps us towards a more definite 
knowledge of its habitat. 

The Journal of the Siam Society is not commonly consulted 
by zoologists, and the passage is of sufficient interest to have their 
attention called to it. 

C. Boden Kloss. 
December, 1920. 

No. II. The status of the Burmese House-Crow 
h ( Corvus splendcns insolens) as a Siamese Bird. 

Oates, in writing of G. insolens [Handbook Birds Brit. 
Burmah (1883) I, p. 399], remarks that "It has been sent from 
Siam, where it is probably abundant ; and Dr. Tiraud states that 
this species is the common House-Crow of Cochin China." The 
same author [Fauna Brit. India, Birds I (1889), p. 21] observes that 
" This species extends into Siam and Cochin China." 

The next reference which I can trace is that of Gyldenstolpe 
[Kungl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Hand., Band 50, No. 8. (1913), p. 18] who 
says of Gorvus insolens: — "Very common in Bangkok and its 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



106 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

neighbourhood, but I failed to observe it in Northern Siam, though 
it possibly occurs round the towns and villages with the Jungle-Crow. 
In real jungles, however, it is always replaced by Corvus 
macrorhynchus Wagl." 

Gyldenstolpe was, of course, in error in stating that this 
bird is very common in Bangkok and its neighbourhood, as I pointed 
out in Part I of my Paper on the Birds of Bangkok in the Journal 
of this Society, Vol. I, No. 2, page 76 (1914). I remarked then that 
I had never seen the bird here. 

Finally, Gyldenstolpe in " A Nominal List of the Birds at 
present known to inhabit Siam " (Ibis, 1 920 ? p. 448), observes : — 
" In the British Museum (Natural History) there is a specimen 
collected by Mouhot in Siam. Also observed in Bangkok by the 
present author." 

Some years ago Mr. K. G. Gairdner informed me that he 
had seen this bird at Petchaburi, a town about 150 km. south-west 
of Bangkok on the Southern line of railway, and the Rev. Lucius C. 
Bulkley, of Petchaburi, states (in a letter just received) that he has 
always understood that the Burmese House-Crow was found at 
Ratburi — 101 km. west of Bangkok, on the same line. Both these 
towns are in the Province of Rajaburi. I am not aware of the 
locality where Mouhot obtained his specimen, but as he spent four 
months in Petchaburi Province in 1860, it may well be that he 
procured it there. 

In the Bangkok Museum there are two mounted specimens, 
in an excellent state of preservation, with a label giving the Latin 
and English names, but no date — the handwriting being said to be 
that of the late Dr. E. Haase, Scientific Director of the Museum, 
who died in Bangkok in 1894. The taxidermist of the Museum. 

Khun Bamrunof I'D 14 LIT J 0), informs me that he himself shot the 
birds at Pran, in S. E. Siam, 235 km. from Bangkok on the Southern 
line, and about 85 km. south of Petchaburi. The year, he states 
emphatically, was that of the " trouble with the French," i.e., 1893, 
when a French Inspector of Police was shot on the Mekong, and two 
French gunboats forced the passage of the Menam Chao Phya (the 
river on which Bangkok stands) after a skirmish with the forts at 
the mouth of the "river. This date coincides well with that of the 
death of Dr. Haase, who was succeeded at the Museum by Capt. 
Stanle}' S. Flower. 

The position appears, therefore, to be that three authentic 
Siamese specimens of the Burmese House-Crow are on record — 
one obtained by Mouhot about the year 1860, now in the British 
Museum in London, and two collected by Khun Bamrung, the 
taxidermist of the Bangkok Museum about the year 1893, and still 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. £OC. SIAM. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 107 

in that institution, mounted and exhibited in a case. I have 
handled these specimens. Certain it is that the bird is now very rare 
in Siam, and has not been procured by any recent collector. Pran, 
the- place where the two specimens in the Bangkok Museum were 
procured, is only 19 km. south of Nong Kae, on the same line, 
where I collected for a week in December 1917 without seeing a sign 
of this bird. 

The Siamese name for the Burmese Jungle-Crow (Corvus 

coronoides andamanensis)* is Ka \^) , while they know the Bur- 
mese House -Crow as Kae (nfl) - both words being, of course, 
onomatopoeic, as are so many Siamese names of birds. Nong Kae 

(wUOJtin^ the place mentioned above, means "The swamp of the 
Kaes ", so the bird must have been found there once. 

W. J. F. Williamson, 
December, 1920. 



CORRIGENDUM. 



P. 106, line 23. For Petchaburi Province read Petchaburi 
district 



* In adopting Beavan's name I follow Stuart Baker in his " Hand-List 
of the Birds of India" — Journ. Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc, xxvii No. 2 (1920), 
p. 230. It is to be noted, however, that Gyldenstolpe (Ibis, 1920, p. 448), 
has accepted' the name given by Stresemann (C. c. hainanus) as applying to 
the Siamese form. In its wide sense the bird is, of course, C macrorhyn- 
chus auct. 

VOL. IV, NO. 2, 1920. 



THE 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Natural History Society of Siam. 



Vol. IV., No. 3 



Date of publication, Nov. 15, 1921 



EDITED BY 
Malcolm A. Smith and W. J. F. Williamson. 



Price to Members, 
Price to Non-Members,. 



Tcs. 2.50 
Tcs. 5.00 



Agents :— WITHERBY & Co. 326 High Holborn, London, 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

On Plants feom South Annam. By Messrs. Baker, Moore, 

Rendle, Ridley and Wernham ... .. ... 109 

Report on a Collection of Dragonflies from the Lao 

Country. By Major F. C. Fraser, I.M.S. With a Plate ... 161 

Some Undescribed Rhopalocera from Siam. By N. D. 

Riley, f.z.s., f.e.s. and E. J. Godfrey, b. sc, f.e.s. 

With 4 Plates ... ... ... ... 167 

A New Race of Nutmeg-Pigeon from Pulo Condore. By 

C. Boden Kloss, m.b.o.u., cf.a.o.u. ... ... 191 

A New Name for the Frog Rana pullus. By Malcolm A. 

Smith, P.Z.S. ... ... ... ... 193 

Miscellaneous Notes : — 

I. — The Burmese House-Crow (Corvus splendent 

insolens) at Petchaburi. By Lucius C. Bulkley. 195 

II. — The GLint Ibis (Thaumatibis gigantea) in 

Cambodia. By W. J. F. Williamson, m.b.o.u. ... 196 

III. — Earth Snake Eating a Grass Snake. By 

Malcolm Smith. ... ... ... 196 

IV. — Curious Fishing Ceremony on the Upper 

Mekong. By A. H. Duke. ... ... 197 

Proceedings of the Society. ... ... ... 199 

Statement of Accounts for 1920 ... ... ... 201 

List of Members on October 31, 1921. ... ... 202 



THE 

JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Natural History Society of Siaiii. 

Volume IV. Bangkok. Number 3. 

ON PLANTS FROM SOUTH ANNAM 
BY 

Messrs. E. G. Baker, S. Moore, A. B. Rexdle, H. N. Ridley 

and H. F. Werxham. 

With an introduction by the collector, 

Mr. C. Boden Eloss. 

PREFACE 
BY 

Dr. A. B. Rexdle. F. R. S. 

The collection of plants made by Mr. C. Boden Kloss, in the 
South-east corner of Annam, in March, April and May r , 1918, has 
been determined by members of the Department of Botany, British 
Museum (where the specimens are preserved), and Mr. Ridley. Mr. 
Kloss has supplied an account of the localities in which the plants 
were collected, mainly the highlands of the Langbian province ; and 
also records of colour i, which are printed between inverted 
commas. The collection presented by Mr. Boden Kloss to the 
Natural History Museum comprises 191 species of flowering plants, 
including one Gymnosperm, Dncrydiiiuc elatum, and 4 Cryptogams. 
There are 60 Monocotyledons, 33 of which are Orchids, and among 
these are a new genus, Zetagyne, near Pholidot" ; six new species 
and a new variety. Three of the six members sent, in the family 
Zingiberaceie, are also new species ; and there is a new ftmilax. Of 
the 131 Dicotyledons the best represented families are Rubiace<e, 
13 species, and Composite, 20 species, with six new species in each. 
Altogether there are 39 new species, including two new genera and 
4 new varieties. The majority of the novelties come from the 

1 Omitted by Mr. Moore. 



110 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM. 

Laogbian Plateau, at altitudes of from 5,000 ft. (at Dalai) to 7,500 

ft. (Langbian Peaks); a few were collected on the Dran Plateau at 

3-4,000 ft. Cyclacanthus, a new genus of Acanthaceas comes from 

tlie coastal plain at Tour Cham, where also was collected a new 

Asclepiad, Toxocarpus Klossii. 

Including the 43 novelties the endemic forms number 54, or 
p 

thirty per cent of the whole; several are Orchids previously collected 
in the same locality by Micholitz. Sixteen species were previously 
known from Cambodia, Siam, or some other part of the Burmese 
Peninsula ; the Zingiberaceous genus Geostachys, hitherto known 
only from the Malay Peninsula, is extended in distribution by the 
new species G. annainensis. Twelve species are Himalayan, and a 
similar number Indian, extending in a few cases to further India 
and the Malay Peninsula. Thirty-two species, or about one-sixth of 
the whole, are Indo-Malayan, and 4 are Malayan. Erlocaulon 
Hookerianum has hitherto been found only in Borneo and the 
Malay Peninsula. Twenty-four per cent of the whole are more 
widely distributed tropical or sub-tropical species, including, as for 
instance among the Composite, a number of common tropical weeds. 
The Cryptogams include a new species of fern, Adiantum Klossii 

INTRODUCTION 

BY 

C. BoDEN KLOSS, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S. 

During the spring of 1918 I spent some time in South 
Annam, French Indo-China, and though not primarily concerning 
myself with plants, succeeded, in the intervals of other collecting 
pursuits, in bringing together the material dealt with below. My 
visit, in company with Dr. Malcolm Smith, was made during the 
second half of the dry season which is not the best time for gather- 
ing botanical specimens, as in some of the districts where our camps 
were made vegetation was much dried up. When I came away 
towards the end of May the rains had just started ; the country was 
beginning to look greener and many plants were showing signs of 
budding : this time would apparently be the best for a botanist's 
visit to commence ; he would not experience the pleasantest 

JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. Ill 

weather, which is during the cool season, but would probably enjoy 
the most favourable conditions for furthering his objects. 

The collection secured contains practically all the species in 
flower that I met with round our camps, and was made between 
Phanrang, on the coast of South Annam in Lat. 11° 35' N., and the 
Langbian Peaks, 7,500 ft. (in the hill province of Langbian which 
contains almost all the southern extremity of the Annamite moun- 
tain chain), distant from Phanrang about fifty miles in a NW ^ N 
direction. 

The places from which specimens came are : — 

1. Tour Cham, Phanrang Province : on the coastal plain 
four miles from Phanrang. The country in the neighbourhood is 
covered with short grass and scattered thorny bushes, many with 
succulent leaves : it has a superficial resemblance to much South 
African scenery and is very sterile except where irrigated for rice. 
(Specimens collected in March and May). 

2. Daran, Phanrang Province: about thirty miles NW h N 
from Tour Cham. Situated within the lower spurs of the mountain 
range at a height of 650 ft. The locality is mainly clothed with 
forest, tropical, but very different from dense equatorial jungle owing 
to the scantiness of undergrowth and the absence of parasitic plants 
and lianas : very dry except along the banks of the Kronfa river 
and largely very rocky. In March while I was sojourning there 
the prevailing tints of the foliage were yellow and pink and the 
ground was covered with dry leaves; but in May, when I passed by 
again, all the vegetation had become a beautiful fresh green. 
(Specimens collected in March). 

3. Draw, Langbian Province; about twelve miles from 
Daban and up in the mountains at 3,000 ft. on a broad shelf or 
plateau through which the Da Nhiin (river) runs to join the Donai. 
The first pines were seen at 2,700 ft., and at 3,000 ft. and higher 
they predominate in grass-land, though green and denser non- 
coniferous forest also occurs. The pine-woods consist principally of 
Pinus Khasya with a small proportion of Pinus Merkusii and a 
few solitary trees of Thuya sp. ; corky-barked oaks grow also among 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



112 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM. 

the pines on the ridges and afford support to the common scarlet 
and white orchid, (Dendrobium draconis), at 4,000 ft, and higher. 
Some of the plants obtained round Dran came from swampy spots ; 
some others were collected along the road-side, and of these part 
have probably been brought up through the construction of the 
ioad which is now being made from Daban. (Specimens collected 
in March and May). 

4. Arbre Broye, 5,400 ft., and Le Bosquet, 5,200 ft,, 
Langbian Province, are on the way from Dran to Dalat ; the route 
is mainly through pine-forest and grass-land though there are some 
stretches of leafy jungle also. A few plants were obtained during 
the journey out and back in March and May. At the latter time a 
good many things not noticed on the way up were in flower between 
these two places, no doubt the result of recent rain ; at Arbre Broye 
I saw on a tree a charming white clematis with a brown and yellow 
centre. No collecting could be done as my supply of paper had 
come to an end. 

5. Li an Khanh, Gou Gah, Tambgr, and Tambou are all 
between Dalat and Djiring, 8,000 ft., about thirty five miles to the 
south-west of the former. A flying visit was paid to Djiring in 
April : the route runs over slightly undulating country, between 
2,700 and 3,200 ft. in height, through various kinds of forest, scrub 
and grass-land. 

6. Dalat, 5,000 ft., in Langbian Province, is about twenty-one 
miles N. W. of Dran. It is situated near the south-western edge of 
the Langbian Plateau, the centre of which is an undulating area of 
treeless grass-land surrounded by pine and oak forest with under- 
growth of grass and bracken : there are also some patches of mixed 
forest, The open country is about eight miles by five in extent and 
at the New Year the grass, then three or four feet high, is regularly 
burnt by the Moi (as the Indonesian inhabitants of the hills are called 
by the Chinese Annamites). This burning, which spreads to the 
forests also, destroys all seedling trees and is probably the cause of 
the open area, though now the indigenous population in the immediate 
neighbourhood is very small. (Specimens collected in April and May). 

JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 113 

7. Laxgbian Peaks. 7,500 ft., situated at the north-eastern 
extremity of the Plateau. The massif is roughly crescentic in form, 
and the hollow side, facing Dalat, is clothed below the central and 
higher summits with mixed forest, very open beneath, which be- 
comes small and dense near the ridges and on the two highest peaks, 
which are adjacent to each other. The eastern ridges are covered 
with oaks, while pines and grass-land predominate on the outer 
slopes and on the western arm of the range. I met in this locality 
only one species of Rhododendron and one very unornamental 
Begonia (B. langbianensis Bak. fil., sp. nov.) ; but, unfortunately 
neither was in flower. (Specimens collected in April). 

The flora was largely new to me, and as I am no botanist but 
took practically everything I saw in blossom at each p^ace during 
the periods of my visits, I shall not attempt to record the occurrence 
at the various collecting stations of species not in flower. Ferns 
were very scarce. 

The temperatures experienced varied from 65° F. in the early 
mornings and over 90° in the shade in the afternoons at Tour Cham 
and Daban to about 52° at sunrise and 65° on dull afternoons in our 
camp at 6,000 ft. on the Langbian Peaks. The weather was very 
dry until the third week in April, but subsequently a good deal of 
rain fell in the hills after midday. 

The rainy season at Dalat is from April to October and this 
is also the period of most equable temperature. The dry season 
lasts from mid-November to mid-April, and though the nights are 
considerably colder than in summer, the days, on the other hand, are 
hotter. In February three or four degrees of frost sometimes occur, 
and in that month and March the diurnal range of temperature may 
be between 30° and 90° F., whereas in August and September it is 
between 50° and 80'. The winter season is much the pleasanter 
time for a visit.* 

*For another account of my visit, with a sketch map showing route 
and localities, and plat s of scenery and vegetation, see "Ihis", July 1919, 
pp. 392-402, text -figure 3, pis. VII-IX. Note that the upper illustrations 
on pis. VII and VIII have been misplaced : the upper picture on pi. VIII 
goes with the upper legend on pi. VII, while the upper picture on pi. VII 
is a photograph of the Langbian Peaks and Plateau. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



114 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY, AND WERNHAM. 

The general aspect of the Langbian hi]] region is probably 
very like that of the Shan States. The pine woods which extend to 
fifteen or twenty miles sonth of Djiring belong to the most southerly 
forests of this kind in continental Asia. 

It is sometimes stated, even as recently as ] 913 (cf., Groom 
and Rushton in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bol, XLI, pp. 458,484), that 
Firms occurs in the Malay Peninsula. This is not known to be the 
case even if we consider this peninsula to commence, as we must if 
we want to be accurate, at the head of the Gulf of Siam, i.e., in lat. 
N. 13° 30'. 

Pines are not recorded from Mt. Nwalabo near Tavoy in 
Southern Tenasserim and are therefore unlikely to occur on Mt. 
Myengmolekhat, 6,800 ft., a little further south and just within the 
peninsular area. 

The species of Pinus and their distribution in Southern 
Indo-China and the adjacent archipelago are : — 

Pinus Khasya North Tenasserim (Martaban) ; North Siam 
(Chiengmai District); Annam. 

Pinus Merkusii North Tenasserim (Martaban; Sal win and 
Thoungyin rivers); North Siam (Chiengmai district); Annam; 
Cochin China ;* Philippines (Luzon and Mindoro) ; South-eastern 
Borneo ; North Sumatra. 

Pinus insularis Philippines (Luzon); Timor. 

Under the circumstances the absence of Pimus from Java is 
remarkable. 

MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

ORCHIDACEAE 

P.Y 

H. N. Ridley, C. M. G. ; F. R. S. 

1. Dendrorium secundum Wall. 
Dran, 3-4,000 ft. " Crimson with orange lip, no leaves." 
Distrih. Cochin China, Martaban, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java. 



*Not indigenous; but introduced from Annam. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 115 

2. Dendrobium Willi amsoni Day & Kchb. fil. 

Langbian Peaks, 6000 ft. " Whitish to pale. yellow, lip streak- 
ed scarlet, top of throat carmine." Dalat, 5000 ft. " Flowers yellow, 
hairy part of lip and base of hood blood-red, 2 to 4 flowers in a 
cluster." 

Distrib. Assam, Khasiya. 

3. Dendrobium draconis Rchb. fil. 

Dran, 3-4,000 ft. " Flowers white, lips striped vermilion be- 
coming yellowish in front." Flowers in clusters of 2-6. 

Distrib. Tenasserim, Siam, Cochin China. 
4. Dendrobium Pierardi Roxb. 

Dran, 3-4,000 ft. " Sepals white faintly tinged green and 
tipped faint crimson. Petals white faintly tinged green. Lip pale 
yellowish green, throat streaked with purple." 

Distrib. Himalayas, Bengal south to Tenasserim and Malay 

Peninsula. 

5 ClRRHOPETALUM MACULOSUM Lhldl. 

Langbian Peaks at 6,000 and 6,500 ft. " Dull greenish yellow 
spotted brown to dull pale crimson, greenish slightly marked with 
reddish brown." 

Distrib. Nepal, Kumaon, Sikkim. 

6. Ione annamensis Ridl., sp. nov. 

Rhizoma validulum, pseudobulbis remotis curvis conicis flavis 
rugulosis (in sicca) 2.5 cm. longis 1 cm. latis ad bases. Folium 
lineari-lanceo-laterae coriaceum obtusum minute bilobum, basi in 
petiolo 1 cm. longo attenuatum, 12 cm. longum, 1-5 cm. latum. 
Scapus gracilis 30 cm. longus, vaginis ad 6, remotis 3 cm. longis. 
Racemus 6 cm. longus floribus nutantibus 6. Bradeae lanceolatae 
subscariosae 1 cm. longae appressae. Pedicelli graciles 1.5 cm. 
longi. Sepalum pasticum ovatum obtusum 1.2 cm. longum 7 
mm. latum, lateralia angustiora sublanceolata aequilonga basi 
connata. Petala ovata obtusa minute denticulata 3-nervia multo 
breviora. Labellum carnosum basi cymbiforme, apice crasso minute 
papilloso, 8 mm. longum, kermesinum marginibus ad basinvidetur 
viridulum ; callo ad basin transverso cornubus 2 minutis. Golumna 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



116 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

flava sepalg postico adnata, stelidiis parvis augustis recurvis. Pollinia 
globosa. Capsula obconica 1 cm. longa. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,000-7,500 ft. "Dull pale green to dull 
pale crimson streaked dark crimson.'' 

Allied to /. paleacea Lindl., of the Himalayas, but with 
shorter sepals and petals, and shorter lip with upcurved sides and a 
very different callus at the base. 

7. Eria paniculata Lindl. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500 ft. " Greenish and yellowish white 
blotched with crimson." This form differs from typical E. pani- 
culata in its long narrow lanceolate subulate bracts .7 mm. long. 

Distrib. Sikkim, Assam. 

var. ANGUSTIFOLIA Ridl. var. now 

Gaul is. 11 cm. longus, foliis carnosioribus angustioribus 
14 cm. longis 3 mm. latis. Racemus ut in typo sed callis in labello 
multo longioribus. Dalat 5,000 ft. " Flowers pinkish crimson 
white." A somewhat similar form but more intermediate between 
this and the last was collected in Laos by Micholitz ; the very narrow 
stiff leaves, and the stronger developed calli on the lip, which. is 
purple in the centre of the terminal lobe, are distinguishing marks. 

8. Eria globifera Rolfe. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,000 ft. " Lip yellow streaked brownish, 
throat much streaked with crimson."' This specimen has remarkably 
large flowers, the sepals 3-5 cm. long, .5 mm. across. The type plant, 
however, with smaller flowers, came from the same locality. 
9. Eria nivosa Ridl., sp. nov. 

Caules lignosi 3-5 cm. longi. Folia carnosa linearia 10 cm. 
longa 3 mm. lata, canaliculata. Racemus terminal is 8 cm. longus 
onuiuo albo-lanatus, floribus ad 6, pedicellis 3-4 mm. longis, bracteis 
ovatis subsequilongis. Sepalum posticum oblougum obtusum .5 mm. 
longum ; lateralia triangularia aequilonga, .4 mm. lata, ad basin 
extus lanata intus glabra vel parce lanata. Petala linearia breviora 
obtusa sparse lanata ; Labellum carnosum oblanceolatum obtusum 
apice incrassata, in medio depresso, carina brevi in unguc, callo 
oblongo papilloso in medio, marginibus minute ciliatis ; G alumna 

JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SJAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 117 

brevis ; Anthera ovoidea breviter apiculata. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. "Yellow; Lip crimson-brown, stem and 
buds and back of flower silvery to greenish. " Allied to Eria 
pannea Lindl, but with a longer stem, narrower leaves, more and 
smaller flowers and a quite different lip. 

10. Eria tomentosa Hook. fil. 

Dran, 3-4,000 ft. " Brown ; bracts ochraceous. " A spike of 
flowers in bud appears to be this species. 

Distrib. Silhet, Chittagong, Tenasserim. 
11. Eria amica Rchb. fil. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500-7,500 ft. " Flowers pinkish white 
spotted purple ; lip yellow ; white blotched with yellowish and 
crimson in centre. 

Distrib. Himalayas, Assam. 

12. ACANTHEPHIPPIUM STRIATUM Lindl. 

Langbian Peaks. " White tinged yellowish faintly streaked 
with crimson, lip spotted with deep crimson." 

Distrib. Sikkim, Nepal. 

13. Phaius Wallichii Lindl. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Flowers crimson brown and white. 5 to 6 
ft. tall" 

Distrib. Sikkim through Burmah to Malay Peninsula. 

14. CtELOGYNE LAWRENCIAXA Rolfe. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Flower cream, upper side of mouth orange." 
Originally collected by Micholitz in this district. 

15. Oelogyne Mooreana Rolfe, 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500-7,500 ft. "White lip blotched 
orange ; Corolla pale yellow." Originally collected at this spot by 
Micholitz. 

16. CCELOGYNE AXNAMENSIS Ridl., sp. 110 V. 

Rhizoma crassum, vaginis coriaceis tectum, pseudobulbi.s 
oblongo-conicis 5 cm. longi.s. Folia lanceolata acuta, basi in petiolo 
alato angustata, 20 cm. longa 4.5 cm. lata; petiolo 7 cm. longo. 
Scapus in apice pseudo-bulbi 30 cm. longus. Racemus flexuosus 
14 cm. longus parte leasali bracteata, 7 cm. Pedicelli cum' ovariis 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1S21. 



118 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM. 

] cm. longi. Sepala oblonga lanceolata acuta 2 cm. longa 5 mm. lata. 
Petala angiistiora lanceolata acuminata .2 mm. lata. Labellum 2 cm. 
longum, lobis lateral ibus oblongis obtusis ; epichilio 1.5 cm. longo 
obtuso, marginibus denticulatis. Labellum 2.2 cm. longum, lobis 
lateralibus latis rotundatis denticulatis, epichilio oblongo-ovoideo 
obtuso margine denticulato, nervis elevatis 3 a basi usque ad epichiliam' 
currentibus processubus conicis elevatis in seriebus 2 vel pluribus. 
Columna arcuata, clinandrium margine brevi bilobo rotundato. 
A nth era conica. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500 to 7,500 ft. " White, lip blotched 
orange and yellow." 

17. Sigmatogyne Pantlingii Ph'tzer. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500 ft. "Flowers pinkish yellow. Leaves 
bronze green, bulbs yellowish. Leaves and bulbs green." 

Distrib. Assam. Also collected by Micholitz on Langbian. 

In the original drawings of this plant 3 small calli are 
shown on the lip, the middle one very small and nearer the base. 
This middle one does not occur in Kloss's specimens which otherwise 
exactly resemble the type. 

18. Pholidota convallarle Hook. fil. 
Langbian Peaks, 7,000 ft. "White." 

Distrib. Khasiya, Tenasserim. 

Zetagyne Ridl. gen. now 

Pseudobulbi globosi ; approximate Folia synanthia 2 lineari- 
lanceolata, vaginis ad basin ovatis coriacies. Scapus gracilis brevis. 
Bractene cymbiformes persistentes. F lores mediocres, pauci. Sepala 
lanceolata acuminata carinata. Petala angustiora. Labellum 
integrum late lanceolatum basi saccatum gibbosum, nervis 3 elevatis. 
Columna breviuscula sigmoidea, basi incrassata, margine clinandrii 
elevato oblongo truncata. Anthera, lata ovata rotunda. Rostellum 
latum crassum rotundatum. Stigma, magnum margine crasse dilatato. 
Species 1. 

19. Zetagyne albifloka Ridl., sp. nov. 
Pseudobidbus 2 cm. longus, caules foliacei 1.5 cm. bracteis 

ovatis nervosis. Folia 3 cm. longa .5 cm. lata subobtusa, basi in 

JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANN AM. 119 

petiolo angustata. Seapus terminalis gracilis 4 cm. longus basi nudo. 
Bractew distichre distantes coriacese cymbiformes acutaa .5 mm. longae. 
Pedicelli vix longiores. Sepala .8 mm. longa alata. Petala subsecunda 
haud alata. Labdlum petalis aequilongum late lanceolatum acutum 
integrum. Golumna brevis. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500-7,500 ft, " Flowers white." 

This little plant has exactly the habit of Panisea parviflora 
Lindl., but differs entirely in the form of the column which suggests 
that of some species of Platyclinis or Pholidota. It is short and 
sigmoid, with a tall oblong truncate hood to the clinandrium nearly 
as long as the rest of the column and much overtopping the anther. 
The rostellum is very prominent and thick, and the stigma cup- 
shaped with a thick edge. The sepals have a strong thin wing or 
keel running along the back. 

20. Otochilus porrecta Lindl. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,000-7,000 ft. "White blotched brown 
lip ; Golumna greenish brown." 

Distrib. Himalayas to Tenasserim. 

21. Calanthe velutina Ridl., sp. no v. 

Rhizoma validulum. Folia ovata, apice subacuminato, 
superne glabra subtus hirtula, ner vis prominul is ad 7, 18 cm. longa, 
9 cm. lata; petiolo 30 cm. longo. Sea/pus 26 cm. longus hirtulus ; 
flores ad 8. Bracteae lineares acuminata} .7 mm. longae; pedicelli 
1 cm. longi omnes hirtuli. Sepala ovata acuminata cuspidata 1.2 cm. 
longa. Petala ovata subobtusa glabra breviora aequilata. Labellum 
sepalis aequilongum, puberulum obcuneatum integrum, basi angusto, 
callis 2-4 brevibus semiellipticis ad basin calcare brevi crassiusculo 
uncato .5 mm. longo. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500 ft. " Flowers white. Lip streaked 
ochreous." 

This has the habit of G alismaefolia Lindl., but with an 
entire lip. The underside of the leaf and inflorescence is covered 
with very short hairs. 

22. Arundina speciosa Bl. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft., Lian Khanh Falls, 3,000 ft. " White, 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



120 MESSRS BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM. 

throat spotted purple ; bottom of lip yellow, edges yellowish." The 
tip of the lip is however distinctly pink. 

Distrib. India, Mala}' Peninsula, Java, China. 
23. Oymbidium laxcifolium Hook. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Flowers white or pinkish white. Striped 
deep crimson, hood tipped yellow. Ground orchid with coarse roots, 
no bulbs." 

Dislrih. Himalayas, Malay Peninsula, Java, China, Japan. 
24. Vaxda Micholitzii Rolfe. 

Gou Gah Falls, 2,900 ft. " White becoming pale green at 
extremities of petals. Leaves alternate and opposite." First obtained 
at Langbian by Micholitz. 

25. Vaxda Watsoxi Rolfe. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,000-7,000 ft. "White slightly tinged with 
pink, base of lip orange and yellow. Leaves green spotted crimson." 
Also previously collected by Micholitz. 

26. Rexaxthera Imschootiaxa Rolfe. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Upper sepal and petals dull reddish 
yellow spotted crimson, throat Avhite. Column white ; lower sepals 
crimson, reverse salmon red. Steins red." 

Distrib. Assam and Burma. 

27. Saccolabium calceolare Lindl. 

Langbian peaks, 6,000-7,000 ft. " Yellow blotched with red, 
fringe of lip white. " 

Distrib. Himalayas, Assam. 

28. Saccolabium Klossii Rid]., sp. nov. 

Caules erecti 14-18 cm. longi ; vaginis valde rugosis 1 cm. 
longis. Folia linearia carnosa inaequaliter biloba obtusa 8 cm. 
longa .7 mm. lata. Racemi plures multiflori densi 4 cm. longi. 
Bracteae persistentes 3 mm. longae. Flores rosei .5 mm. longi, 
pedicellis .5 mm. Sepala ovata obtusa lateralia carinata. Petala late 
ovata rotundata. Labellum lateribus ad basin involutis, epichilio 
brevi acuto ovato cymbiformi callo v-formi ad basin. Calcare crasso 
in medio attenuato apice subgloboso dilatato. Pollinia oblongo- 
rotundata, pedicello brevissimo lata, disco oblongo quadrato quam 

JOURX. XAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 121 

pedicellus multo majore. Capsula ellipsoidea ad basin angustata 
.5 mm longa. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,000-7,500 ft. " Pale crimson, spur white." 

Allied to 8. rubescens Rolfe, of the same district, but the 
flowers are much smaller, and the spur is pinched in before the 
globosely dilated tip. 

29. Saccolabium Eberhardtii Finet. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,000 ft. " Pale crimson. " This was the 
original locality of the species. 

30. Saccolabium gemmatum Lindl. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Deep crimson, lip white. " 

Distrib. Himalayas. 

31. Thrixspermum fracrans Rid!., sp. no v. 

Folia lorata biloba 16 cm. longa 1.5 cm. lata. Racemus 2 
cm. longus, bracteis cymbiformibus remotis 4 mm. longis. Flores ad 
4 ; pedicellis gracilibus .5 mm. longis. Sepala et petala lanceolata 
caudata augusta 1.5 cm. longa. Labellum saccatum, lateribus 
elevatis apice subulato, 1 cm. longum, calcare oblongo linguiforme 
truncato in ore. Columna pede sepalis unita, marginibus elevatis 
involutis. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers white tinged yellowish with 
strong scent of tuberose. Leaves alternate. Roots greyish green. " 

Allied to Th. notabile Ridl., but the leaves much larger and a 
callus in the mouth of the spur. 

32. Spiraxthes australis Lindl. 
Dalat, 3,000 ft, " Flowers pink." 

Distrib. Tropical and subtropical Asia except Malay Penin- 
sula, Australia, New Zealand. 

33. Cypripedium villosum Lindl. 

Langbian Peaks, 7,000 ft. " Dull waxy yellow, washed and 
veined with reddish brown. Lip green veined darker, its centre 
chocolate and edges whitish. " 

Distrib. Teuasserim. 



VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



122 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM. 

ZINGIBERACE/E. 

BY 

H. N. Ridley. 

34. K/KMPFERIA ALBO-VIOLACEA Ridl., Sp. UOV. 

Folia 2 ovata sessilia 5-9 cm. longa, 4 cm. lata glabra. 
Flwes congesti inter folia circiter 8. Calyx tubulosa uno latere- tissa, 
lamina lanceolata acuminata 1.5 cm. longa. Corallce tubus gracilis 
4 cm. longus. Petala oblonga obtusa sepalis latiora. Lahellum 
obovatum, ungue longo breviter bilobum, lobis rotundis. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " White faintly tinged with violet. Lip 
darker and blotched with violet." 

" This belongs to the affinity of K. galanga L., but the 
flowers are much larger than in any species known to me and the 
lip but shortly lobed at the tip. 

35. Amomum lacteum Ridl., sp. nov. 

Folia glabra angusta linearia acuminata 24 cm. longa 5 mm. 
lata, vaginis angustis longis, ligula brevi truncata. Capitulum 2 cm. 
longum, scapo 11 cm. bracteis inferioribus ovatis, superioribus oblongis 
2 cm. longis, cuspidatis, rachide velutino ; bracteis capituli truncatis 
oblongis margine hirto. Calyx 2 cm. longus tridentatus, marginibus 
et dentibus hirtis. Corollce tubus 2 cm. ; lobi lineares oblongi 5 mm. 
longi. Labellum integrum obovatum 7 mm. longum 6 mm. latum. 
Anthera oblonga, crista biloba in angulis supremis. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers yellowish white, bracts 
reddish." 

Allied to A. uliginosum Koen, var. lappaceum Ridl., but with 
narrow leaves, hairy bracts and longer scape. 

36. Geostachys annamensis Ridl., sp. nov. 

Rhizoma crassum lignosum vaginis coriaceis tectum. Folia 
6 vel plura linearia-oblonga longe acuminata, subtus pubescentia 
demum glabrae : 30 cm. longa 4 cm. lata, vaginis 18 cm. longis 
rubropunctatis. Sea pus erectus 14 cm. longus basi 7 cm. vaginis 
coriacees pluribus tecto, panicula 7 cm. longa compactus multiflorus. 
Bracteai chartacese oblongae 3 cm. longae. Rami paniculae 2-3 flori. 
Pedicelli 5 mm. Calyx tubulosus truncatus breviter in uno latere 
fissus 1.5 cm. longus. Corolla' tubus 2 cm. longus cylindricus 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM 123 

supernedilatatus, lobus posticus lanceolatus cucullatus cuspidatus 
1.5 mm., laterales lineari-oblongi breviter cucullati. Labellum late 
obovatum trilobum, lobis lateralibus latis rotundatis medio angustiore 
oblongo, 3 cm. longum, 2.5 cm. latum. Anthera 7 mm. longa, crista 
tenui oblonga reniforme in dorso. 

Dalat, 5 ; 000 ft. '■' White tinged with pink and spotted 
crimson." 

The genus Geostachys has been hitherto known only from the 
Malay Peninsula. This species has not secund flowers or rather 
branches as most of the species, and has a distinct thin crest. 
37. Alpinia bracteata Roxb. 
Langbian Peaks, 7.000. ft. White lip crimson with yellow 
extremity. 

Distrib. India, Burma, Shan States, Siam. 

38. Alpinia velutina Ridl., sp. now 
Folia lanceolata utrinque attenuata glabra 34 cm. longa 
6 cm. lata. Panicwla densa 11 cm. longa tomentosa. Bractece caducse 
oblongae obtusae 1 cm. longae molliter liirtae. Calyx tubulosus densa 
hirtus 2 cm. longus apice breviter trilobo. Corolhe tubus aequilongus 
lobi spathulate cucullati hirti. Labellum carnosum, ungue longo, 
limbo decurvo obovato apice rotundato trilobo, nervis elevatis. 
Anthera oblonga dorso hirta appendice nullo filamentum petalo 
sequilongum. Gapsula globosa rubra 1 cm. longa hirta. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500 to 7,000 ft. "Flowers white 
streaked with crimson, mantle pale green, fruit blood-red." 

This very soft tomentose plant is allied to A, Murdochii 
Ridl. ; A. oxymitra Schum. is also allied to it, but has distinct 
staminodes and a crested anther. 

39. Alpinia conchigera Griff. 
Dalat, 5,000 ft. " White." 
In young bud but I think it is this species. 
Distrib. Burma, Malay Peninsula. 



VOL. IV, NO. 3, 19'2L 



124 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM. 

BURMANNIACEAE TO GRAMINEAE. 
BY 

Dr. A. B. Rendle, f.r.s. 
BURMANNIACEAE. 

40. BURMANNIA DISTICHA L. 

Lirtii Khanh Falls, 3000 ft. la grassy swamps. 

" Flowers violet and yellow. " 

Distrih. India, China, Australia. 
LILIAGEAE. 

41. SMILAX ANNAMENS1S Rendle, sp. nov. 

Frivtex scandens, glaber. Gaules subangulosi, laeves, aculeis 
par vis subrecurvis sparse aimati. Folia ovata vel ovato-elliptica ; 
apice acuta, basi rotundata demum subacuta, conspicue 5-nervia, nervi 
duo centrali propiores cum eo supra basin coaliti ; petioli infra medium 
in vaginam subfoliaceam saepe cirrhiferam expansi. Bacemi c? 
2-umbellati, 2 in exemplo unico 3-umbellati, inter folium et 
squamam ovatoacutam nunc lissam nascentes, folio duplo vel triplo 
breviores. Bracteae late ovato-cordatae, acumine setaceo. Umbella.e 
multiflorae, globosae ; alabastrae oblongae obtusae pedicelli tenues 
patentes. FL mas. Sepala oblonga, ut petala lineari-angustata paullo 
longiora demum revoluta/; stamina 6, antherae obtusae demum 
excurvatse. Fl. fern. Sepala anguste ovato-oblonga ; petala e basi 
latiore linearia, sepalis subsequalia ; stamina sterilia 3, sepalis 
opposita ; stigmata psene e basi libera, crasse linearia, excurvata. 

Langbian Peaks, 6000 ft. " Flowers green and pinkish or 
pale crimson." 

Leaves 10-16 cm. long by 4.5-9 cm. broad; petiole 2-4 cm. 
lono". Bracts .5 cm. or less. Peduncles of umbels 2-4 cm. long, 
pedicels slender, generally 6-10 mm. long. Sepals and petals 
about 6 mm. long. Most nearly allied to the Indian 8. prolifera 
Roxb., but easily distinguished by the few-umbelled inflorescence. 

42. DlANELLA ENSIFOL1A Red. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. "Flowers blue and white ; stamens yellow 
tipped with brown ; fruit violet. " 

Distrih. Tropical Asia to tropical Australia, Mascarene Is. 

JOUEN. NAT. HIST. SOC. S1AM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 125 

43. Disporum pullum Salisb. 
Langbian Peaks, 6,500 ft. "4 ft. tall. Flowers dull crimson, 
stamens yellow. " 

Distrib. Himalayas, Java, Sumatra, China. 
PONTEDERIA CEAE. 

44. MOXOCHORIA PLANTAGINEA Kth. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers blue. " 
Distrib. India, Malay Archipelago, China, Japan. 
ERIOCAULACEAE. 
45. Eriocaulon Hookerianum Stapf. 
Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Flowers white. " 

Distrib. Borneo and Malay States. 
46. Eriocaulox Broavniaxum Mart. 
Dalat, 5,000 ft. " In grass swamps. Flowers white." 
Distrib. India, Ceylon. 

COMMELINA CEAE. 

47. COMMELIXA XUDIFLORA L. 

Daban, 650 ft ; Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers blue. " 
Distrib. Tropics generally. 

48. AXEILEMA GIGAXTEUM R, Br. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft, "Flowers pale violet." 
Distrib. Old world tropics. 

49. Floscopa scaxdexs Lour. 
Daban, 650 ft. " Pale purple. " 
Distrib. India, Malaya, China, Australia. 
AMARYLLIDACEAE. 
50. Hypoxls aurea Lour. 
Dran, 3,000-4,QOO ft. Dalat, 5,000 ft. "In grass-land. 
Flowers yellow. " 

Distrib. India, Java, China, Japan. 

51. Curculigo latifolia Dry and. 
Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Flowers yellow. " 
Distrib. Burma, Malay Peninsula and Islands. 

52. Crixum asiaticum L. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers deep pink and white." 

VOL. IV, XO. 3, 1921. 



126 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

Distrib. Tropical India, Ceylon. 

DIOSCOREACEAE. 

53. DlOSCOREA LAURIFOLIA Wall. 

Dalat, 5,00 d It. " Flowers green. " 
Distrib. Penang. 

CYPERACEAE. „ 

54. Mariscus sieberianus Nees. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 i't. 

Distrib. Warm regions of Old World. 

55. TlMBRISTYLlS NIGROBRUNNEA Thw. 
Dalat, 5,000 i't. " Brown with yellow inflorescence." 
Distrib. India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula. 

56. Kyllinga monocephala Rottb. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " White." 
Distrib. Tropical and subtropical regions of Old World. 

57. SCLERIA CHINENSLS KXH. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Fruits white." 
Distrib. China, Malaya, North Australia. 
GRAMINEAE. 
58. Panicum montanum Roxb. 
Dran, 3,000-4.000 ft. 
Distrib. India, Malaya, China. 

59. AXONOPUS SEMIALATUS Hook. til. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft, " Brown." 

Distrib. India, Philippines, China, Australia, Mauritius, 

S. Africa. 

60. Thysanol.ena agrostis Nees. 

Dran, 3,000-4 : 000 ft, 

Distrib. India, Malaya, South China, Mauritius. 

DICOTYLEDONS. 

DOLYPETAL.E. 

BY 

Edmund G. Baker, f.l.s. 
RAX UNC ULA CEJE. 
61. Anemone sumatrana De Vriese. 
Langbian Peaks, 6,000-7,000 ft. "White, centre green, stamens 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 127 

yellow. Leaves pale and dark green." 
Distrib. Sumatra. 

MENISPERMA CE.E, 
62. Cissampelos Pareira L. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers pale greenish." 

Distrib. Widely distributed. 

BERBERIDACE.E. 
63. Mahonia Klossii Bak. fil., sp. nov. 

Frutex sec. cl. detectorem 10-15 pedalis ad M. nejiaulensem 
D.C et M. japonicam D. C. accedens. Folia imparipinuata, multi- 
juga, jugo infimo reraotiusculo et ceteris subaequante, foliolis 
sessilibus terminalibus peiiolulatis coriaceis glabris supra subnitidis 
ovatis vel ovato-lanceolatis ad marginem dentatis, dentibus spines- 
centibus, spinis utrinque 3-4, 5.5-10 cm. longa, 2.5-4.0 cm. lata. 
Floras flavi in paniculas dispositi, paniculis foliis multo brevioribus. 
Sepala 9 glabra. Petala 6. Ovarium atro-caeruleum, ovato- 
globosum, stylo brevi, stigmate orbiculato. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500 ft. 

"Shrub, 10-12 ft. tall. Leaves in terminal circles. Flowers 
yellow. Berries plumbeous." A plant with multifoliolate leaves, 
leaflets 17-25 and with 2-3 rather strong spines on each side. 

Allied to M. nepauleTisis D.C, M. japonica D.C, and M. con- 
ferta Takeda. 

Differs from M. annamica Gagnep., in the number of 
leaflets, etc. 

CAPPARIDAGEAE. 
64. Capparis grandiflora Wall, var. anstamensis Bak. fil., var. nov. 

Rami cinereo-pubescentes spinosi, spinis uncinatis brevibus. 
Folia ovata vel elliptico-ovata 2.0-3.5 cm. longa, 15-20 mm. lata, 
petiolo ±5 mm. longo suffulta. Flores solitarii, majusculi. Ovarium 
cinereo-pubescens, anguste oblongum. 

Tour Cham. " Flowers pale yellow with a crimson or orange 
patch." 

The species is described in the Flora of British India, as 
having a glabrous ovary. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



128 MESSRS BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY, AND WERNHAM 

65. Oapparis horrida L. 
Tour Cham. " Crimson to purple. " 
Distrib. Widely distributed. 

66. Capparis corymbosa Lam. 
Tour Cham. " Yellow-white." 

It is with considerable hesitation that I venture to refer this 
plant to the above African species, but it presents all the leading 
characteristics, namely, the branches have the short spines, the 
flowers are in fascicles, the buds globose and glabrous or nearly so, 
and the ovary is ovoid, glabrous and the stigma minute. 
67. Niehuhria decandra Gagnep. 
Tour Cham. " Greenish white. " 
Distrib. Cambodia, Siain. 

VIOLACE.E. 
68. YlOLA ANNAMENSIS Bak. fil., sp. nov. 
Perennis. Folia ovata vel triangulari-ovata, margine serrata, 
glauca, glabra vel fere glabra, apice acuta, basi cuneata, graciliter 
petiolata, lamina 15-20 mm. longa, 13-18 mm. lata, petiolo 10-18 
mm. longo suffulta. Pedunculi graciles, pubescentes, bibracteolati, 
apice reflexi. Flores parviusculi, solitarii, pallide violaceo-albi. 
Repaid lanceolata, omnia deorsum in appendices producta, lineis 
notata 4.5-5.0 mm. longa. Petala patentia, inferius deorsum in 
calcar breve productum. Stylus superne clavatus. Capsula ignota. 

• Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Flowers pale violet, lip white streaked with 
dark violet." 

A plant with glabrous glaucous foliage and rather small 
flowers with a short saccate spur. The petioles are slender. 
Allied in some respects to V. serpens Wall. 

69. Viola serpens Wall. 
Langbian Peaks, 6,000-6,500 ft. "White, lip streaked with 
violet; other petals faintly veined or tinged with violet." 
Distrit). India. 

70. Viola distans Wall. 
Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Pale violet with darker violet blotches and 
reticulations." 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 129 

Distrib. India. 

PORTULAGAGEjE. 
71. portulaca oleracea l. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. "Flowers yellow, stem pink, succulent." 
Distrib. Widely distributed. 

HYPERIGAGEjE. 
72. Hypericum japonicum L. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Flowers yellow." 
Distrib. Widely distributed. 

MALVACEAE. 
73. Sida acuta Burm. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Apricot yellow." 
Distrib. Widely distributed. 

74. Urexa lob ata L. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers with pink centre, carmine." 
Distrib. Widely distributed in the Tropics. 

75. Hibiscus sagittifolius Kurz. 
Tambou, 2,700 ft. " Carmine. In tall grass swamps." A form 
of this species. 

Distrib. Cochin-China, Cambodia, Laos, Siam. 
STERCULIACEjE. 
76. Helicteres hirsuta Lour. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Distrib. Cochin-China, Tonkin, Annam, Laos, Java, Philip- 
pines, &c. 

TILIACEuE. 
77. Triumfetta pseudocaxa Sprague & Craib. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Yellow." 
Distrib. Siam. 

RUTAGE^J. 
78. Evodia triphylla D. C. 
Dalat, 5,000 ft. 
Distrib. Widely distributed. 



VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



130 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

BALSAMINACEJS. 

79. Impatiens prothacta Hook. fil. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. A herb with opposite leaves and with 
purplish red flowers in the axils of the leaves. 

Lian Khanh Falls, 3,000ft. "Flowers bluish red." Dalat. 
In wet grass land. " Flowers maroon red." 

The above differ in size and colour of flowers but do not seem 
specifically separable. 

Distrib. Annam. 

AMPELIDACEM 
80. Tetrastigma plaxicaule Gagnep., var. annamensis Bak. 

fil., var. nov. 

Cirrhoswm scandens. Caulis glaber. Folia saepissime 4 
foliolata, foliolis elliptico-lanceolatjs margine serratis supra glabris 
penninerviis apice subacuminatis 9-13 cm. longis, 3-4-5 cm. latis 
longiuscule petiolulatis pstiolulis 2-4 cm. longis, petiolo communi 
7-10 cm. longo suffulta. Inflorescentia composita, multiflora, laxa, 
corymbosa. Flores fceminei. Galyx brevis, papillosus. Petala + 4 mm. 
longa, extus sublenta minute papillosa, lanceolata. Ovarium conicum, 
stylo brevissimo, stigmate dilatato 4-lobato. Fructus ignotus. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,000 ft. A scandent shrub with usually 
4-foliolate leaves and a lax corymbose cyme. 

I have carefully compared this with the figure of Vitis plani- 
caulis Hook, fil., Bot. Mag., t. 5685. The plant from Annam differs 
more particularly in having a much laxer broader inflorescence, and 
the leaves are only 4-foliolate. 

81. Leea coccinea Planch. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Stem, buds, edges and base of leaves 
red." 

Distrib. Burma. 

ANAGARBIACE.E. 

82. BUCHANAXIA SIAMENSIS Miq. 
Tour Cham. " Flowers greenish white." 
Distrib. Siam. 



JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 131 

LEGUMINOSM 

83. Uraria lagopoides D. C. 
Dran. " Pale purple." 
Distrib. Malaya, India, China, Polynesia, N. Australia. 

84. Uraria crinita D. C. 
Daban, 650 ft. " Blackish." 
Distrib. India, China, Malaya, Siam. 

85. Clitoria ternatea L. 
Tour Cham. " Purplish blue." 
Distrib. Widely distributed in the Tropics. 

86. Desmodium ovalifolium Wall. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Shrub, purplish red." Fruit required 
to confirm this identification. 
Distrib. India. 

87. PlTHECOLOBlUM CLYPEARIA Benth. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Tree. Flowers greenish white." 

Distrib. Tenasserim, Penang, Malacca, Malay Isles, China. 
ROSACEA. 
88. Rubus (Id.eobatus) Klossi Bak. fil., sp. nov. 

Caules fruticosi, glauci vel subglauci, glabri. Rami aculeis a 
basi dilatata subrectis armati, aculeis majoribus 8-9 mm longis. Folia 
pinnata 9-10 cm. longa, foliolis 8-11 ellipticis vel ovatis, margine 
serratis 2-3 cm. longis, 1-2 cm. latis, subtus incanis nervis lateralibus 
subtus prominentibus supra glabris, petiolulis brevissimis, foliolis ter- 
minalibus majoribus. Stipulae inaequilateraliter lanceolatae. Tnjiores- 
centia foliis brevior. Flores parviusculi, glomerati. Calyx in toto 5 
mm. longus, extus incanotomentosus, lobis acuminatis. Petala pallide 
rosea, obovata, unguiculata cum ungue+_4 mm. longa. Fructus ignotus. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers pale pink." A plant with 
pinnate leaves, with leaflets incanous below and clusters of small 
flowers, allied to R. trijugws Focke, and R. rosaef alius Sm. 
89. Rubus annamensis Card, (e descript.). 

Langbian Peaks, 6,000-6,500 ft. A plant with palmately 
lobed leaves toinentose below, allied to R. glomeratus Blume. 

Distrib. Annam. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



132 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

90. Prunus occidentals Sw. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500-7,000 ft. " White perfumed shrub or 
small tree." 

Distrib. Widely distributed. 

SAXIFRAGACE.E. 

91. Drosera lunata Ham. 

Dalat. 5,000 ft. " Flowers white. In open grass-land." 
Distrib. Widely distributed. 

92. Drosera burmanxi Vahl. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " In wet grass-land. Flowers crimson. Pitchers 
greenish red. Leaves and stem red-green." 
Distrib. Widely distributed. 

CRASSULAGEM 

93. Kalaxchoe axn amica Gagnep. 
Tour Cham. " Yellow." 

Distrib. An nam. 

MYRTAGEM 

94. Rhodomyrtlts tomentosus Ait. 
Djiring, 3,000 ft. " Pink." 

Distrib. Widely distributed in Tropical Asia. 
MELASTOMACEM 

95. OSBECKIA CHINENSIS L. 

Dalat, 5.000 ft. " Flowers mauve. Growing in grass-land which 
is burnt yearly." 

Distrib. Widely distributed. 

96. Melastoma Klossii Bak. fil., sp. no v. 

Species ad M. decern fid um Roxb. accedens. Rami subteretes, 
fuscohirsuti. Folia lanceolata vel oblongo-lanceolata, supra laevia vix 
stvigillosa, subtus pallidiora, apice acuta vel subacuminata, saepius 
5-nervia, lamina 6-10 cm. longa, 25-3 - 5 cm. lata, petiolo hirsuto 
6-9 mm. longo sufFulta. Flares 5-meri, saepissime terni. Calyx setis 
subulatis hirsutus, calycis dentibus lineari-lanceo-latis tubo bre- 
vioribus. Petala inaequilateraliter obovata 23-25 mm. longa. 
Stamina valde inaequalia, antherae lineari-subulatae, apice unipo- 
rosae, loculis undulatis, majores infra loculos connectivo producto et 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 133 

antice bicalcarato. Ovarium superne pilis longis obtectum ad calycem 
plus minus adnatum. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " In scrub at edge of forest." 

Noticeable on account of the calyx being densely covered 
and the segments being narrow. The flowers are generally in 
threes. 

The anthers of the larger stamens are 10 mm. long, those of 
the smaller 8 mm. long. 

I have carefully compared it with specimens of M. decem- 
fidum Roxb., collected by W. Jack on Penang Island. The flowers of 
M. Klossii are smaller and generally in threes, whilst those of 
M. decemfidum are solitary or subsolitary. 

97. Melastoma candidum Don. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Pale purplish pink." 

Distrib. Widely distributed. 

LYTHRACEJE. 
98. Rotala rotundifolia Koehne. 

Lian Khanh Falls, 3,000 ft. Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Distrib. Widely distributed. 

ONAGRACEM. 

99. JUSSIEUA ANGUSTIFOLIA Lam. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft, " Flowers yellow." 

Distrib. Widely distributed. 

BEGONIACE.E. 
100. Begonia langbianensis Bak. fil., sp. nov. 

Herba caulescens, caule longitudinaliter striato validiusculo 
ad B. laciniatam Roxb., et B. cirVumlobatam Hance, accedens. 
Stipulae 2 liberae, subacuminatae. Folia parum inaequilatera palma- 
tim usque ad medium 5-7 lobata, utrinque praecipue ad costam pilis 
adspersa, lobis lobulatis remote serratis apice acutis vel subacumina- 
tis, 12-15 cm. longa, 13-16 cm. lata, petiolo 6-9 cm. longo praedita. 
Flores desuut. Peduncular fructiferus 14-17 cm. longus. Fructus 
capsularis inaequaliter 3-alatus, ala maxima 12-15 mm. longa. 

Langbian Peaks, 7,000 ft. " Leaves green, stems and fruit 
red." A plant allied to B. laciniata Roxb., with green leaves and 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



134 MESSRS BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

ted stem. The leaves are palmately 5-7-lobed to about the middle, 
the lobes being themselves somewhat I ©bed. The fruiting peduncles 
are long, the capsule 3-alate, one wing being much longer than the 
others. It probably belongs to the section Plaiy centrum, but flowers 
are absent. 

GAMOPETAL/E. 

CAPRIFOLIACE.E TO LABIATE. 

BY 

Dr. H. F. Werxham. 
CAP1UF0LIACE.E. 

101. LoNICERA MACRAXTHA Don. 

Arbre Broye, 5,400 ft. " Flowers white to yellow." 

Distrib. India, China. 

RUBIACE.E. 
102. Argostemma borragineum Blume. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Stamens yellow." 

Distrib. Malaya. 
103. Hedyotls equlsetiformis Weriiham, sp. no v. 

Uerba humiliuscula inter gramina Horens. Catties graciles 
altiuscule longitudinaliter canaliculati glabrati, basi sublignosi 
sparse ramosi, basinque versus cortice subargenteo stipularum 
necnon vaginae onusti reliquiis. Folia pro rata sessilia firmiuscule 
pergamacea angustissime lanceolata apicem versus leniter necnon 
conspicue acuminatissima atque acutissima, utrinque glabra ; venae 
subtus prominentissimae laterales valde obliquae utrinque 2 ; 
stipulae infra in vaginain tardius cohaerentes tumidiusculam per- 
sistentem insuper in setain tenttissimam necnon elongatam productae 
quisque interpetiolaris. Flares minimi in cymulis trichotomis 
paueitioris umbellatis dispositi laxiusculis axillaribus ; pedunculi 
tenues foliis multo breviores ; bracteae inconspicuae saepius breves 
oblongo-lanceolata3. Calyx infundibularis lobis lanceolatis obtusis. 
Corolla, anguste infundibularis lobis 5 patentibus. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. "Violet-white. In grass-land." A delicate 
little herb, branched from the base and sparsely branched above, 
20-30 cm. in height, It is allied to the group with pedunculate in- 

JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 135 

florescences, of which H. vestita is the principal example ; but this 
new species is distinct in its delicate habit, very narrow leaves, and 
persistent stipular cup-like sheaths, the latter producing an appear- 
ance in the older nodes that has suggested the specific name. The 
nearest allies are, apparently, the Chinese H. loganioides Benth., and 
H. Vdchellii Benth., both much coarser plants with large broad leaves. 

Leaves 5-6 cm. x 5-8 mm. ; sheath of stipules about 2 mm. 
deep, the solitary seta 5-7 mm. long. Primary peduncle not more 
than 1-5 cm. long. The whole flower is barely 2 mm. in length at 
maturity. 

104. Oldenlaxdia subtilior Wernham, sp. nov. 

Herba gracillima caulibus tenuissimis parum elongatis con- 
spicue sub-lente canaliculato-striatis minutissime argenteo-pubescenti- 
bus, debilibus ascendentibus. Folia filimentosa-subulata necnon 
subrigida adscendentia opposita arete revoluta glabra breviuscula 
acuta; stipulae interpetiolares simplices setacea3. Flares 4-meri 
parvi plerumque solitarii in axillis superioribus oriundi ; pedicelli 
tenuissimi ebracteolati multo excedentes. Calyx cum ovario glaber 
dentibus anguste triangularibus acutissimis. Corolla anguste cam- 
panulata inter minim as. 

Lian Khanh Falls, 3,000 ft. " Pink." 

A delicate little herb, 20-30 cm. high, very sparingly branch- 
ed, with long internodes, and leaves (2 cm. long at most) and stems 
extremely slender. The setaceous stipules are as much as 3 mm. in 
length. Pedicels 1-1-8 cm. Calyx-lobes nearly 2 mm., ovary about 
1 mm. long. Corolla 3-4 mm. long. 

Allied to 0. Stoeksii from Malabar, but readily distinguished 
by the small and differently shaped flowers. 

105. Ophiorrhiza Harrisiana Heyne. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " White." 

Distrib. India, Malaya. 

106. MlJSSAENDA PUBESCEXS Ait, 

Dalat, 5,000 ft, Lian Khanh Falls, 3,000 ft, 
" Flowers orange-yellow, foliaceous calyx-segments pale 
yellow." 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



136 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

Distrib. China. 

107. Mussaenda DRANENSIS Wernham, sp. nov. 

Verisimiliter frutex ramulis glabris cortice striato in siccitate 
castaneo-brunneo onustis conspicue sparsiuscule lenticellatis gracili- 
bus subteretibus. Folia inter minora pergamacea elliptica basi 
acuta apice acuminata acutissima, nisi subtus in venis primariis 
minute puberulo-strigillosa glabra, lateralibus utrinque ca. 5 ; petiolus 
gracilis minute strigillosus ; stipulce fugaces. Flares inter minores 
in cymis densiusculis corymbosis dispositi compositis foliis subaequi- 
longis; bractece parvse inconspicuae subulatse. Calycis limbus 
dentibus deltoideis acutissimis brevissimis onustus uno lobo nonnun- 
quam in laminam petaloideam expanso suborbicularem basi 
acutissimam petiolo gracillimo, apice nee acuminatam necnon 
acutam. Corolla pro genere inter minimas angustissima basin versus 
fere filamentosa, extus minute strigillosa limbo angusto, lobis triangu- 
laribus subacutis. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers orange ; foliaceous calyx-lobes 
yellowish white." 

Leaves 8-10 cm. x 3-4 cm. ; petiole, less than 2 cm. Calyx-teeth 
barely 1 mm. long, the petaloid lobe about 5 cm. x 35 cm. with stalk 
barely 1 cm. long. 

This species is related to M. variolosa Wall., differing in the 
indumentum of stem and leaves, and in the shape of the latter, and 
specially distinguished by the extremely slender corolla, and the 
very inconspicuous calyx-lobes. 

108. Pavetta tomentosa Smith. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers white. Small shrub." 

Distrib. India, Malaya, South China, North Australia. 
109. Morixda polyneura Miq., var. aspera Wernham, var. nov. 

Hamuli densiuscule scabrello-puberuli ; folia matura utrin- 
que scabridula. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Flowers white." 

Distrib. This species has been recorded hitherto only from 
Java. The variety resembles the type closely in all respects save 
the indumentum. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 137 

110. Prismatomeris albidiflora Thw. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft, " White ; shrub." 

Distrib. India and Malaya. 

111. Psychotria moxtana Kino- & Gamble. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Shrub. Flowers greenish-white." 

Distrib. Ind. Or. and Malaya. 

112. Psychotria Bodenii Wernham, sp. noY. 

Frutex ramulis graciliusculis mox cortice rugoj-ulo glaberrimo 
indutis. Folia glabra minuscula papyracea, anguste elliptico- 
lanceolata utrinque praesertim apicem versus acutum acuminata ; 
petiolus breviusculus gracilis ; stipulae breviter vagiuantes insuper 
furcis 2 plus minus distantibus angustissinie lanceolatis subsetaceis 
longiusculis divisse. Tnflorescentia, cymosa pauciflora trichotome 
disposita foliis multo breviora, bracteis parvis etsi manifestis brevi- 
bus setaceis. Flares inter minimos, corollw tubo pro rata lato brevi, 
lobis late lanceolatis 5 obtusiusculis deflexis. Staminum 5 antherse 
ellipsoidea-oblongse omnino exsertae filamentorum longitudinae 
manifesto. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Flowers white. A shrub." 

Leaves 5-10 cm. x 1.5-2.8 cm., secondary veins up to 10 or 11 
pairs; petiole rarely exceeding 1cm. in length ; stipules consisting 
of a sheath 2-3 mm. deep, with two prong-like projections, more or 
less setaceous, above, 5—6 mm. long. The inflorescence, a compound 
cymose umbel, measures about 4 cm. in diameter, the setaceous 
bracts 2 mm. at most in length, these being at the apex of the 
primary peduncles rather more than 1 cm. long. The whole flower 
is barely 3 mm. long; calyx 1 mm. ; corolla -tube 2-2.5 mm., lobes 
rather more than 1 mm. long. 

This species has undoubted relationship to the Indian P. 
symploci folia Kurz, but it is readily distinguished by the leaf- 
characters and the stipules, alone. 

113. Psychotria langbianensis Wernham, sp. nov. 

Frutex ramulis graciliusculis diutius dense flavo-pubescenti- 
bus. Folia internodia multo excedentia firme papyracea, anguste 
elliptica utrinque aequaliter leniterque acuminata apice tamen non- 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



138 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

nunquam caudato-acuminata acuta, supra glabra subius in venis 
tenuibus etsi manifeslis praisertim central i densiuscule pilis flavis 
oaustis, lateralibusque primariis crebriusculis (utrinque circa decern); 
petiolus pro rata validiusculus brevis densiuscule pubescens basin 
versus plus minus in flatus; stipiilce longiuscule vaginantes insuper 
2 in lobis vaginam subaequantibus di visas lanceolatis submembran- 
aceas dorso carina prominente centrali onustse. Flores in cymulis 
dispositi trichotomis subterininalibus foliis multo brevioribus, ramulis 
dense flavo-puberulis, bracteis parvis setaceis pedunculis brevibus* 
Flore* inter minimos, albi. Calyx companulatus cum ovario extus 
densissime adpresse flavo-pubescens, lobis late triangularibus 
obtusis ; corolla' tubus brevis necnon latus, lobi patentes anguste 
deltoideo-lanciolati apice inflexo. Antherce exsertse. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " White. Shrub." 

Leaves 5-9 cm. x 1.3-2.5 cm., with petiole not exceeding 
8 mm. in length. Sheath of stipules 2-3 mm. deep, the upper lobes 
about the same in length. Cyme 3-4 cm. in width, the primary 
peduncles about 1 cm. long. Calyx about 1.5 mm. deep, the corolla* 
tube rather more than 2 mm. long and nearly the same in width at 
the mouth. Anthers about 6 mm. long. 

This species is allied to P. arborea Ridley, of Java and 
Sumatra, from which it may be readily distinguished by the leaf 
characters — texture, indumentum, and venation — alone. 
114. Lasiaxthus Wrayi King & Gamble. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. '■' Small tree ; flowers white." 

Distrib. Malay Peninsula. 

115. Lasiaxthus dalatexsis Wernham, sp. no v. 

Frutex vel arbor parva nisi stipulis necnon corollis glaberrima 
polita, ramulis subteretibus rugosulis gracilibus laevissimis. Folia 
opposita utrinque glaberrima crassiuscule pergamacea elliptico- 
lanceolata saepius longe caudato-acuminata apice necnon basi acuta 
breviuscule petiolata; vence primaries praesertim subtus eonspicuas 
promineutes, laterales utrinque 7-9, reticulo inter veniente manifeste 
transverso ; stipulae subcoriaceas coneaveas lanceolate acuminata? 
dorso dense griseo-hirsutae. Flores minimi in cymulis alaribus con- 

JOURX. XAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 139 

gestis sessilibus dispositi paucifloris. Calyx, latiuscule lobatus limbo 
brevi ; corollae tubus cylindraeeus basi paullo inflatus glaber, lobi 
brevifcer oblongi apice obtusi supra dense pulveruloento-puberuli. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Shrub or small tree. Crimson to pink and 
ultimately white." 

Leaves 9-16 cm. x 2.5-4.5 c m. ; petiole 1 cm. long at most. 
Stipules barely 5 mm. long before falling. Inflorescence scarcely 
1.5 cm. in diameter, about equalling the leaf-stalks. Calyx about 
1 mm. deep. Corolla-tuhe nearly 4 mm. long, lobes 1.5 mm long. 

Related to the Malayan L. con sir ictus, but readily dis, 
tinguished by the leaf-shape and venation. 

116. Paederia tomextosa Blume. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " White, centre crimson with pale 
violet hairs ; buds greyish-mauve." 

Distrib. India, and Eastern Asia generally. 
CAMPANULA CE.E. 

117. Lobelia trigoxa Roxb. 

Lian Khanh Falls, 3,000 ft. " Flowers white and violet." 
Distrib. India (Eastern) and Java. 
M0N0TR0PACE.E. 

118. MoXOTROPA UXIFLORA L. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Growing in clumps on the ground. Waxy 
bluish-white." 

Distrib. Himalayan region, China, Japan, N. America. 

OLEACEM. 

119. Jasminum axxamexsis 'Wernham, sp. nov. 

Frutex ramulis graciliusculis subteretibus notabiliter densis- 
sime dulciter puberulis. Folia simplicia papyracea opposita ovata 
parum acuminata apice acuta basi truncato-obtusa nee cordata, 
utrinque dulcissime puberula; petiolo validiusculo pubescente nee 
longo. Flores albi in cymulis subcapitals dispositi ramula brevia 
virgata ternimantibus. Calyx campanulatus puberulus limbi lobis 
aciculari-subulatis longiusculis. Corolla glabra tubo gracili inter 
breviores, lobis 7-9 ovato-lanceolatis breviter acumioatis, limbum 
subcampanulatum formantibus. 

VOL. IV, xo. 3, 1921. 



140 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

Djiring, 3,000 ft. "Flowers white." 

Leu res about 6 cm. x 4 cm., with stalk up to 1 cm. in length. 
Branches of inflorescence (exclusive of corolla) about 5 cm. long, 
with a pair of small leaves close under the base of the inflorescence, 
Calyx-tube 3-4 mm. deep, the awl-shaped lobes 6-7 mm. long, rarely- 
more. Corolla-tube 1.7 cm. or rather longer, lobes 1 cm. long, barely 
5 mm. broad. 

Allied to J. pubescent Willd., this species is readily disting- 
uished by the smaller flowers, and the relatively much narrower 
corolla-lobes. 

APOCYNACE.E. 
120. Carissa garandas L. 

Tour Cham, " White, scented." Dalat, 5,000 ft. " Flowers blue, 
leaves purple-brown." 

Distrib. India and Malaya. 

121. Rauwolfia (Ophioxylon) serpentinum Benth. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. "Shrub. Flowers white, buds dull pale 
crimson." 

Distrib. Eastern India, Malaya. 

LOG AN L ACE, E. 

122. G.ERTNERA VIMINEA Hook. jil. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. "White, tipped pink. Small tree." 
Distrib. Malay Peninsula. 

GENTLANACEJS. 
128. Gextiana quadrifaria Blume. 
Langbian Peaks, 6,000-6,500 ft. "Flowers blue and yellow." 
Dalat, 5,000 ft. "Blue. In open grass-land." 
Distrib. E. India, China, and Malaya. 
CONVOLVULACEM 

124. EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES L. 
Tour Cham. "Blue." 
Distrib. Everywhere in the tropics. 

125. Ipomaea obscura Ker. 
Tour Cham. -'Yellow." 
Distrib. Old World Tropics. 

JOURN*. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 141 

SOLANACE^E. 
126. Lycofersicum esculentum Mill. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. "Flowers and fruit yellow." 
Distrib. Native of the warmer parts of America; long 
introduced into most other warm and temperate countries, where it 
is cultivated for the sake of its fruit — the Tomato of commerce. 

127. SOLANUM NIGRUM L. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. "Flowers white, and stamens yellow." 
Distrib. Ubiquitous. 

128. SOLANUM INDICUM L. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. "Purple, stamens yellow." 
Distrib. India, Malaya, China to Philippine Islands. 

129. Datura fastuosa L. 
Tour Cham. "White." ' 

Distrib. India, tropical Eastern Asia, tropical Africa. In 
America probably not native. 

SCROPHULARIAGE^E. 

130. TORENIA ASIATICA L. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. "Violet-blue; edge of lip and entire 
throat deep violet." 

Distrib. Tropical Asia. 

131. Vandellia pedunculata Benth. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. "White or pale violet." . 
Distrib. India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula. 

132. Striga lute a L. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Yellow." 
Distrib. Asia and warmer parts of Africa. 

133. Sopubia DELPHIN1FOLIA G. Don. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. " In open grass-land. Flowers primrose- 
yellow." 

Distrib. Eastern India and Ceylon. 
BIGNONIACE.E. 

134. Dolichaxdrone falcata Seem. 
Tour Cham. " Pinkish white." 

Distrib. India. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



142 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

VERBENACE.E. 
135. Verbena officinalis L. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Pale violet," 
Distrib. World-wide. 

136. CoXGEA TOMEXTOSA Roxb. 
Daban, 650 ft, " Greyish lilac bracts : very large." 
Distrib. India, Burma, Siam. 

LABI ATM 
137. Acrocephalus Klossii, sp. nov. 
Herba caulibus gracillimis e basi nonnunquam copiose rainosa, 
internodis tenuibus longissimis tenacissimis. Folia parva perpauca 
distantia pergamacea anguste elliptica apice obtusiuscula basi cuneata 
breviterque petiolata, venis lateralibus paucis (3-5) subtus valde 
prominentibus griseo-hirsutis. Flore* minuti in capitulis lanatis 
dispositi nonnunquam spicatim cylindraceis ; bractae florales parvae 
numerosae dense a^gregatae ovato-lanceolatae acuminatae apice 
acutissimae in siccitate nigricantes. Calycis labia integra extus 
dense griseo-strigosa. Corolla paruin e calyce exserta. 

Lian Khanh Falls, 3,000 ft. "Flowers whitish and pink." 
A stra^ling and naked-looking plant. Leaves to 2.5 cm. long and 
8 mm. broad, with petiole about 5 mm. long. Heads 1-2 cm. long, 
about 8 mm. Avide. Bracts at base 8 mm. x 4 mm. Calyx 2 mm. 
in greatest depth. Corolla-tube and lips about 1 mm. each in length. 
In its floral characters this species appears to be related to 
the African A. cylindraceus Oliv., but it is quite distinct in habit, 
also in size and shape of the leaves. 

138. Scutellaria discolor Colebr. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. " Pale blue, lip whitish." 
Distrib. India, Burma, Malaya. 

139. Scutellaria laxgbiaxexsis Wernham, sp. nov. 
Herba erecta e basi rainosa lignosa caulibus subteretibus 
circiter bispithameis gracilibus simplicibus minute necnon dense 
puberulis. Folia inter minora tenuiter membranaceo-papyracea 
elliptica utrinque nisi paucis in venis distanbibus sparse strigosis 
glabrata in siccitate kevi-grisea, petiolo gracillimo necnon longo 

JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 143 

velut caules dense minutiuscule pubeiulo. Flores inter minores 
fcerminali in raccmo dispositi internodis conspicuis, pedicellis brevibus 
ebracteolatis. Calyx subcupularis ore hiante tumidiusculus venosus 
membranaceus ; corolla parva inconspicua infra tubo tenuissimo 
longitudinis toti circa dimidium occupante, insuper plus minus 
subito dilatata. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500 ft. 

The type-specimen consists of two shoots about 30 cm. long, 
joined at the base, from which fibrous roots, spring. The stem is 
less than 3 mm. in the thickest part. Leaves about 6 cm. x 2.5 cm. 
at most, with stalk as much as 1 cm. in length. Pedicels 5 mm. long. 
The narrow, almost filamentous, lower part of the corolla -tube about 
1 cm. in length; the upper part rather shorter, about 5 mm. wide, 
with lips sub-equal, about 5 mm. 

This species is readily distinguished by the small leaves, with 
very few and distant teeth, cuneate base, and slender stalks. 
140. Leucas aspera Sprengel. 

Tour Cham. 

Distrib. Mauritius, India, Java, Philippine Islands. 
COMPOSITE. 

By S. Moore, B.Sc. 

141. Vernonia (§ Xipholepis) annamensis S. Moore, sp. no v. 
Planta parva, semispithamea ; caulis erectus fere e basi foliosus 
griseo-tomentosus. Folia sessilia lineari-oblanceolata pungenti-acuta 
basi obtusa margine distanter denticulata vel integra subcoriacea 
supra scabrida subtus griseo-tomentosa. Capitula circa 21 -flosculosa 
pauca ramulos breves solitatim terminantia ita corymbum brevem 
terminalem 4-6-cephalum mentientia. Involueri campanulati phylla 
6-serialia extericra abbreviata subulata pubescentia cetera oblonga 
pungenti-acuta margine piloso-ciliata apice colorata necnon pubes- 
centia. Flosculi punicei exserti. Achenia subcylindrica callo basali 
parvo optime 10-costata inter costas puberula. Pappi setae 1-2- 
seriatae breviter barbellata? dilute straminea3 perpauca? exteriores 
nonnunquam abbreviate. 

Le Bosquet, 5,000 ft. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



144 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

Stem subterete, 2 mm. thick, really leafy from the bottom, 
but a few of the lowest leaves have been shed. Leaves up to 3x1 cm., 
but usually somewhat smaller, drying greyish, the veining prominent 
on their underside. Inflorescences 2-2.5 x 2.5-3 cm., the heads in the 
axils of leaves reduced to about 1 cm. more or less in length. 
Peduncles 3-6 mm. long, tomeiitose. Involucre 12 x 12 mm.; outer- 
most leaves about 2-3 mm. long, intermediate 4-9 mm., innermost 
10 mm. long. Corollas sparsely papillose with a narrowly infundibular 
tube 6.5 mm. long, double the length of the linear lobes. Style-arms 
2.5 mm. long. Achenes 2.5 mm., pappus 6 mm. long. 

Affinity with V. bracteata Wall. ; differing chiefly in the lowly 
habit, smaller heads with fewer florets, narrower achenes and shorter 
pappus. 

142. Verxoxia (§ Xipholepis) dranexsis S. Moore, sp. nov. 

Ramuli elongati sat tenues subdistanter foliosi eximie longi- 
trorsum striati scabridi. Folia subsessilia oblongo-lanceolata acuta vel 
obtusiuscula basi obtusa margine integra vel distanter denticulata 
papyracea utrinque scabriuscula. Capihda circa 23-flosculosa in 
paniculas axillares vel pseudoterm males quam folia breviores longior 
-esve ordinata. Pedunculi proprii involucro saepe circiter ajquilongi 
uti pedunculus pubescentes. Involuerum campanulatum 6-seriale 
phyllis exterioribus parvulis subulatis patentibus recurvisve ceteris 
anguste oblongo-lanceolatis omnibus pungenti-acutis pubescentibus. 
Flosculi breviter exserti punicei. Achenia oblongo-turbinata callo 
basali prominente pra3dita 10-costata pubescentia. Pappi setae 1-2- 
seriatre (paucis exterioribus abbreviatis) breviter barbellataj albae. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft, 

Probably a tall shrub, the specimens about two spans in 
height. Leaves 9-13 x 1.5-2.3 cm., grey when dry; midrib prominent 
on the lower side but thin ; reticulation well seen on both faces ; 
petioles 2 mm. long, broad, excavated on the upper side. Panicles 
10-20 x 4-5 cm., their linear or subulate bracts 5 mm. more or less 
in length, at most 1 cm. Involucres 8x7 mm. ; leaves of the outer 
two rows 2-3 mm. long, of the middle rows 4-6 mm., of the inmost 
row 7 mm., all pale straw with a green tip. Corollas infundibular 

JOURX. XAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 145 

with pronounced narrowing in the lower half, sparsely papillose, 
including the 2 mm. long lobes, 8 mm. in length. Style-arms 2 mm. 
long. AcJienes 2 mm. long; pappus 7.5 mm. with the short outer 
hairs about .5 mm. long. 

Near the last, but quite different in habit, foliage and heads. 

143. Elephantopus scaber L. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Distrib. A tropical weed. 

144. Ageratum conyzoides L. 
Daban, 650 ft. 

Distrib. A weed in both hemispheres. 

145. DlCHROCEPHALA LAT1FOLIA D. C. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 
Dis'rib. Common in warmer parts of the Old World. 

146. CONYZA AEGYPTIACA Ait. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. 

Distrib. Asia, Australia, Africa. 

147. Blumea glandulosa D. C. 
Tambor, 2,800 ft. 
Distrib. East Asia, Malaya, Tropical Africa. 

148. Blumea laciniata D. C. 
Dalat, 5,000 ft. 

Distrib. India, China, Malaya. 

149. Blumea ciiinensis D. C. 
Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Distrib. India, China, Indian Archipelago. 

150. Blumea Klossii S. Moore, sp. nov. 

Caulis subteres foliosus pubescens; Folia (superioribus solum- 
modo visis) petiolata ambitu obovata acuta pinnatifida pag. sup. 
pubescentia pag. inf. tomento cinereo obtecta segmentis paucis 
oblongo-ovatis acutis margine denticulatis folia summa imminuta 
sessilia vel subsessilia lineari-lanceolata acuta. Capitula inter 
minora in paniculam laxiusculam foliis majoribus circa aequilongam 
pubescentem digesta. Involucri anguste campanulati pubescentis 
phylla exteriora abbreviata lineari-lanceolata interiora linearia acuta. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



146 MESSRS BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY, AND WERNHAM 

Receptaculum £uberulam. Flosculi breviter exserti d 9 pro capitulo 
circa 16. Styli £11. d 2 rami aliquanto complanati obtusiusculi. 
Ache aia nondum matura cylindrica puberula. Pappi setae leves 
dilute strajnineae. 

Annam. 

Leaves with a blade 6-8 cm. long, at most 3-4 cm. broad, 
running out below in a pubescent petiole 2-3 cm. lcng ; lobes 
1.5-2 cm. long, but often shorter ; younger leaves usually 1.5-2 cm. x 
5-8 mm. Panicles 7-8x6-7 cm. Peduncles (of individual heads) 
more or less 5 mm. long, occasionally reaching 1.5 or even almost 2 cm. 
Bracts linear, more or less 2 mm. in length. Heads in flower 6x6 mm. 
Involucre with outer leaves more or less 2 mm. long, and inner 5 mm. 
Corolla of 9 florets 4 mm. long, their exserted style-arms nearly 
2 mm. long. Corolla of d 9 florets 5 mm. long, its teeth triangular and 
pilose-ciliate. Androecium half -exserted. Style-arms 1.75 mm. long. 
Achenes barely 1 mm., setae of pappus 4-4.5 mm. long. 

The chief distinctive mark of this species from among its 
allies is found in the pinnatifid leaves. 

151. Laggera alata Sch. Bip. 
• Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Distrib. India, China, Malaya, Tropical Africa. 
152. Pluchea indica Less. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Distrib. India, Malaya, China. 

153. Wedelia albicaulis S. Moore, sp. no v. 

Caules sat tenues caespitosi e rhizomate valido oriundi 
pauciramosi subdistanter foliosi scabridi. Folia brevipetiolata lanceo- 
lata vel lineari-lanceolata acuminata apice mucronulata basi rotundata 
trinervia margine denticulata pagina utravis scabrida. Capitula 
terminalia (raro itaque axillaria) pedunculis scabridis quam folia 
brevioribus insidentia. Involucri anguste campanulati scabridi phylla 
subbiseriata ovato-oblonga vel ovafca obtusiuscula omnia rigida 
diluteque straminea. Reeeptaculi paleas lineari-lanceolata triloba? 
ciliatse lobo intermedio elongato acuminato. Lignlai 5 exserta? apice 
2-3-dentatoe. Disci flosculi 14 omnes etsi d 9 verisimiliter steriles. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 147 

Aehenia radii oblonga compreasa dorso rotundata necnon pauci- 
costata superne scabriuscula disci linearia. Pappus cyathiformis 
dentatus incrassatus scabriuscule pubescens. 

Daban, 650 ft. 

Stems striate, with a dirty white cortex, 1.5-2 mm. thick. 
Leaves mostly 3.5-4.5 cm. long, towards the base 8-12 mm. broad; 
hispid petioles about 2 mm. long. Peduncles 3-15 mm. long Invo- 
lucres 8x6 mm., the leaves 7 x 2-4 mm. Palece discoloured, 6.5 
mm. in length. Ligides ovate-oblong, 6.5 mm. long. Corolla of 
disc-florets 4 mm. long. Achenes of the ray 4-4.5 mm. long, (inclusive 
of the nearly 1 mm, long pappus), and more than 1 mm. broad ; of 
the disc 2.5 x .2 mm., the squamulose pappus being .35 mm. long. 

154. BlDENS TRIPARTITA L. 

Dalat 5,000 ft. 

Distrib. Europe, North Africa, North and East Asia, North 
America. 

155. Tridax procumbens L. 

Tour Cham. 

Distrib. A South American introduction. 

156. Gynura annamensis S. Moore, sp. nov. 

Caulis ascendens tetragonus sparsim foliosus puberulus. 
Folia radicalia-caulina parva oblongo-vel lineari-lanceolata obtusa 
inferne petioliformi-extenuata margine undulata crassiuscula vix 
omnino glabra. Capitula homogama fere 50-flosculosa nonnunquam 
solitaria plerumque in corymbum laxum longipedunculatum 
oligocephalum parvibracteatum digesta. Pedunculi proprii involucro 
breviores pubescentes. Involucri anguste campanulati pubescentis 
phylla 14 lineari-oblonga sursum attenuata apice acuta marginibus 
scariosis additis circiter 10 multo brevioribus linearibus calyculum 
constituentibus. Flosculi lutei breviter exserti. Styli rami breviter 
extrusi. Aehenia (hucusque cruda) oblongo-turbinata glabra. Pappi 
seta3 scabruisculre alba3. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Leaves including the stalklike portion up to 6.5 x 1 cm., but 
sometimes about 4 cm. x 5 mm. or even less, drying greyish, a few 

VOL. IV, NO. S, 1921. 



148 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

uppermost linear and about 2 cm. in length. Peduncles usually 
10-20 cm. long, slender; proper peduncles usually 1-2 cm. long, 
with narrow bracts of 2-1 mm. Involucres 8 mm. long, the often 
carinate leaves 1.25-nearly 2 mm. broad. Corollas with narrowly 
infundibular tube 8 mm. long, expanding to rather more than 1 mm. 
under the limb; lobes oblong, obtuse, 2 mm. long. Style-arms 3 mm. 
in length. Achenes 1.5 mm., pappus 8 mm. long. 

157. AlXSLIAEA PTEROPODA D.C. 

Langbian Leaks, 7,500 ft. 

Distrib. India, Malay Peninsula. 

158. Geebera piloselloides Cass. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. 

Distrib. India, China, Madagascar, Tropical and South 
Africa. 

159. Lactuca versicolor Sch. Bip. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. ; Langbian Peaks, 6,500 ft. A specimen 
from Daban, 650 ft. with a brown pappus may perhaps be a form of 
this very variable species. 

Distrib. N. Asia, China. 

160. Lactuca Klossii S. Moore, sp. nov. 

Herba fere glabra, circiter bispithamea. Caulis ascendens 
frequenter ramosus uti rami gracilis quadrangularis necnon in longi- 
tudinem striatus. Folia pauca parva anguste linearia obtusiuscula. 
Capitula inter minora in paniculam laxam pleiocephalam ordinata 
pedunculis propriis filiformibus quam involucrum longioribus nudis 
vel bractea parvula donatis. Involucri cjdindrici puberuli phylla 
ext. pauca linearia vel anguste lineari-lanceolata obtusa acutave 
interiora 8 oblonga obtusa marginibus decoloribus. Flosculi pro 
capitulo 10 corollis bene exsertis. Acheaia compressa anguste 
linearia in rostrum breve extenuata paucistriata. Pappi setae scabrida 
albae. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. ; Dalat, 5,000 ft. 

Stem in its lower part about 2 mm. thick and leafless there or 
nearly so; branches 1 mm. or less in thickness, their leaves few and 
far between. Leaves more or less 1 cm. long, sometimes only 5 mm. 

JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 149 

or even less, sometimes 2 cm. Peduncles (of individual heads) gene- 
rally 1-2 cm. in length, their bract when present about 1 mm. long. 
Involucres about 7.5 x 4 mm. ; outer leaves usually 2-3 x .5-1 mm. ; 
inner 7 x 1.5 mm. Corollas 1 cm. long, of which the oblong 5-toothed 
ligule claims 7 mm. Achenes (including the 1.5 mm. -long beak) 6 mm. 
long, barely .5 mm. broad, much compressed, straw-coloured. Pappus 
5 mm. long, apparently persistent. 

The frequently branching, almost leafless habit, with the 
strong quadrangular stem and branches, serve to identify this among 
its nearest allies. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE. 

By S. Moore. 

161. Toxocarpus Klossii S. Moore, sp. nov. 

Planta scandens. Caulis volubilis ramosus, fulvo-sericeus 
deinde glaber. Folia petiolata anguste oblongo-ovata apice basique 
obtusa coriacea supra glabra pallideque nitida subtus praesertiin in 
nervis fulvo-sericea. Cymae terminales leviterve extra-axillares foliis 
saepius breviores pedunculatae ramosae pluriflorae fulvo-senceae. 
Flores pro rata majusculi breviter valideque pedicellati. Calyx sericeus 
segmentis ovato-oblongis obtusiusculis. Corollae tubus calyce 
paullulum brevior, lobis oblongo-lanceolatis sursum curvatis apice 
acutis glabris. Coronae phylla quam antherae paullulum longiora 
gynostegio prope basin imposita linguaeformia obtusa intus appendice 
parvula filiformi instructa; retinacula linearia. Stylus filiformis 
longit. petala fere semi-aequans apice subaequaliter biramosus. 

Tour Cham. 

Stems slender, the young branches much twisted. Leaves up 
to 7 x 2.8 cm., more often about 4.5-6 x 2-2.3 cm., drying greyish, 
paler below ; midrib impressed above, prominent below ; side-nerves 
4-5 on each half of the leaf, and. but little visible on its upper 
face ; petioles stautish, fulvo-sericeous, 5 mm. or less in length. Cymes 
usually 3-5 cm. long; the peduncle more or less 1 cm. Pedicels 1 mm. 
in length or rather longer. Flowers yellow. Calyx 2.5 mm. long. 
Corolla with 2 mm. long tube and 6.5 mm. lono- lobes. Corona 



VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



150 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

.(55 nun. long. Pollinia ovoid, about. .1 mm. long. Style, including 

the 1 mm. long arms, 3 mm. in length. 

This can be distinguished from T. Hosseusii Schlecliter by 
the more hairy leaves and the smaller flowers with shorter calyx- 
segments and markedly shorter and relatively broader corolla-lobes ; 
the coronal leaves a!so are smaller and with a tiny very narrow 
appendix, and the style is much thinner. 

Schlecliter has described the style of T Hosseusii wrongly, 
thus leading Costantin (Flore Gen. Indo-China, IV. 47) to place the 
species smong those with an entire style, whereas that organ is most 
clearly bi ramose. 

162. Calotropis gigantea R. Br. 

Tour Cham. 

Distrib. India to South China and Malay Archipelago. 

103. Tvljphora palatex.sls S. Moore, sp. nov. 

Caulis gracilis volubilis bene foliosus glaber. Folia petiolata 
oblonoo-lanceolata acuta basi truncato-undulata tenuiter membra- 
nacea glabra costis lateralibus utrinque 5-6 delicatulis. Cymae 
laterales solitariae nisi binae quam folia saepius paullo breviores laxe 
pluriflorae glabrae. Pedicelli tenues quam pedunculus breviores. 
Calycis segmenta lanceolata acuta corollae tubo aequilonga. Caroline 
lobi ovati obtusi tubum duplo excedentes. Coronae phylla oblonga 
basi o-ibbosa supernc olumnae stamineae oninino adnata carnosa. 
Antherae erectae membrana brevi rotundata inflexa terminatae. 
Stigma crassum umbonatum antheras baud vel levissime superans. 

Dalat. 5,000ft. 

Leaves mostly 5-7 x 1.7-2.5 cm., green when dry, the reticu- 
lum forming a fine network visible only under the lens ; petk^es 
6-9 mm. long. Infloie-cence usually 4-5 cm. long, the slender pe- 
duncles more or less 2 cm. in length. Cy mules minutely bracteate, 
composed for the mo.-t part of 3-5 flowers. Pedicels more or less 
1 cm. long. Flowers yellowish green, when moistened about 9 mm. 
in diameter, the oblong-ovoid buds 4 mm. in length. CV^'-segments 
1.5 mm., tube of corolla 1.-5 mm. long; corolla lobes 3x2.2 mm. 

JOURX. NAT. II 1ST. SOC. SI AM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 151 

Corona with leaves 6 mm. long. Anthers .25 mm. long. Pollinia 

ovoid, .15 mm. long. Stigma abaut 1 mm. in diameter. 

Appears from Costantin's clavis (1. c. 106) to come nearest 

T. "Pierre i Cost., differing from it in shape of leaves and short 

petioles, shorter inflorescences, and smaller flowers with broader calyx 

segments and coronal leaves united to the stamens throughout except 

for the gibbous base. 

164. Hoya parasitica Wall. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft, 

Distrib. India, Malay Peninsula, Siam, Cochin-China. 

ACANTHACE/E. 

By S. Moore. 

165. Strobilanthes (Eustrobilanthes, Bracteat^) squalens 

S. Moore, sp. no v. 

Verisimiliter frutex vel suffrutex. Hamuli subteretes foliosi 
scabridi. Folia obovata vel late obovato-oblonga obtusa nonnunquam 
breviter cuspidato-acuminata basin versus in petiolem brevem gradatim 
attenuata margine obtuse dentata vel solum undulata pergamacea 
utrobique scabrida. Spied pedunculatse foliis breviores densiflorse. 
Bractece lanceolatse obtusae uti inflorescentige axis scabride hispidis- 
simse. Bracteolce parvulae filiformes calyce plane breviores. Galycis 
segmenta fere usque basin divisa linearia obtusa hispidissima. Corollw 
flavae intus albo-pilosse tubus inferne tenuis a medio inflatus limbi lobi 
postici paullo altius connati. Stamina 4 filamentis in membranam 
corollas omnimodo adnatam connatis. Staminodium O. Ovarium apice 
glandulosum. Stylus breviter puberula. Capsula oblonga apice 
subpungens microscopice puberula 4-sperma. Semina, complanata sub- 
orbicularia margine pilis hygroscopicis copiosissime induta. 

Daban, 650 ft. 

Leaves up to 10 x 5.5 cm., more usually about 8x3 cm., some- 
times reduced to 6 x 2.5 cm. or even less, grey-green when dry, very 
scabrous; petioles about 5 mm. long. Spikes On 5-25 mm. long pedun- 
cles, up to 3 x 1.5 cm. Bracts mostly about 1.5 cm. long, in the middle 
5 mm. wide. Bracteoles only 2.5-3 mm. long. Calyx 7 mm. long. 
Corolla 14 mm. long; tube barely 2 mm. wide below, in the upper 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



152 MESSRS BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

half about 5 mm. ; lobes suborbicular, about 3 x 3 mm. Filaments of 
front stamens 3mm., of hinder-pair 1 mm. long; anthers obtuse, 1.7- 
1.9 mm. long. Ovary nearly 2 mm., style 9 mm. long. Capsule 
9 x 2.2 mm., light brown ; seeds barely 2 mm. in diameter. 

At sight this is barely distinguishable from the Indo-Burme^e 
S. scaber Ness, as understood by Clarke : the somewhat smaller 
flowers with great'y reduced filiform bracteoles afford an easy means 
of identification. 

A small specimen from Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft., is conspecific. 
166. Strobilaxthes (Eustrobilantiies, Nudatje) 
saltiexsis S. Moore, sp. now 

Frutex suborgyalis ramulis aliquanto anfractuosis ad nodos 
tumidis citis glabris. Folium unicum juxta ramuli apicem solum 
visum subsessile lineari-oblongum basi attenuatum glabrum. Flores 
breviter pedicellati in capita distantia pedunculata pauciflora digesti. 
Bractece bracteolceque fugaces. Calyx fere usque basin partitus seg- 
mentis elongatis linearibus obtusis uti pedicelli glandu^so-pubescenti- 
bus. Corolla dihite albo-punicea tubo quadrante inf. constricto 
hide gradatim dilatato lobis inter sese fere ajqualibus suborbicularibus. 
Stamina 4. Ovarium sursum glandulosum. Stylus elongatus fere 
glaber. Capsuld calyce paullo brevior oblonga acuta 4-sperma. 
Semina suborbicularia pilis appressis dense obsita. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,500ft. 

Leaf apparently about 4 cm. long (top not seen), only 3.5 mm. 
broad. Peduncles of the flowering heads slender, usually 1-2 cm. long. 
Pedicels 3-4 mm. Calyx 25-28 mm. long. Corolla 34 mm. long, the 
narrow portion 8x2 mm., tube enlarged to 10 mm. wide in the 
middle and 15 mm. at the throat; lobes 5x5 mm. Anthers ovate, 
1.5 mm. long. Ovary narrowed below, 6 mm., style 20 mm. long. 
Capsule 18-20 mm. in length, brown. Seeds gi'ey, 4 x 4-4.5 mm. 

A very distinct species, near S. isojiliyllus T. And., and S- 
oligocephalus T. And. The narrow leaves and long lobes of the 
calyx are special features. 

The material is incomplete, there being but one leaf, and that 
not quite entire, as well as only a single corolla, which it has been 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 153 

thought advisable not to dissect. In spite of this there seems ample 
warrant for publishing a description. 

167. Blepharis boerhaavia Pers. 

Tour Cham. 

Distrib. East Indies, Tropical and South Africa. 
168. Cystacanthus turgidus Nichols. 

Daban, 650ft, 

Distrib. Cochin China. 

169. Lepidagathls hyalina Nees. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Distrib. East Indies, South China. 

170. JUSTICIA PRO0UMBENS Linn. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Distrib. Africa^ East Indies, Australia. 
* CYCLACANTHUS, 

Acanthacearum e tribu Justiciearum genus novum. 

Calyx alte 5-partitus, segmentis aequalibus linearibus. 
Corollae tubus sat elongatus, sursum incurvus, infra medium 
constrictus inde grarlatim inflatus ; limbus bilabiatus, labio postico 
aestivatione interiore late ovato sursum attenuate apice emarginato, 
antico tripartito lobis linearibus. Stamina 2, faucibus inserta ; an- 
therae biloculares, loculis paullo inaequialtis basi muticis. Pollinis 
grana globosa, poris 3 induta, tenuiter paucicostata, inter costas 
subtiliter punctulata. Discus cupularis. Stylus filiformis, apice 

bifidus. Ovula quove in loculo 2. Capsula . 

Sufrutex ? Folia parva, integerrima. Flores coccinei, in axillis 
saepius verisimiliter foliis jam orbis breviter cymoso-subspicati> 
rarius subsolitarii. Bracteae parvulae. 

171. CrcLACANTHUS coccinbus S. Moore,sp. unica. 

Rami sat validi cortice ochraceo obducti prominenter costati 
foliorum delapsoram cicatricibus prominulis hacataque iliac minuti 
juveniles minutissime cinsreo-pubescentes tanlem glabrescentes. 
Folia brevipetiolata ovata apice basique obtusa membranacea supra 

* Gr. Kuklein, to bend, in allusion to the shape of the corolla. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



154 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

glabra subtus secus nervos appresse pubescentia puberulave necnon 
microsc >pice pustulato-cystolithigera. Flore* mediocres subsessiles. 
Bracteae lineares ufci inflorescentiae axis calyceoque dense glanduloso- 
pubescentes. Calycis segmenta acutiuscula. Corollde calycem facile 
Biiperantis tubus extus puberulus. Stamina breviter exserta, 
ovarium oblongo-ovoideum fere glabrum. Stylus elongatus basi 
pilosulus. ' 

Tour Chancy 

Leaves 2-3.5 x .1.3-1.8 cm., when dry, dark above, greyish 
green below ; petioles up to 5 mm. long, minutely pubescent. Axis of 
the inflorescence reaching nearly 2 cm. in length, more often about 
1-1.5 cm., sometimes only 5 mm. long. Bracts about 2 mm. long. 
Bracteoles not seen. Calyx with segments 6 x .5 mm. Corolla 17 mm. 
long in the tube, at the base 2.5 mm. wide, this soon reduced to 
1.25 mm. hence gradually enlarged to 5 mm. at the throat ; upper lip 
7 mm. wide at the base, reduced to 1 mm. some distance below the 
top; lobes of lower lip apparently reflexed, or at least patent, 
7 x .5 mm. Filaments flattened, glabrous, 9 mm. long; anthers with 
oblong, obtuse, 2.5 mm. long, cells. Disk fleshy, .65 mm. high. Ovary 
2.5 mm., style 2 cm. long. 

This plant has given much trouble, as, while evidently closely 
allied to several genera, it cannot be included in one of them without 
enlarging already reognisei boundaries. It was at first thought to 
be referable to Clinaeanthus, but the two-celled anthers exclude it ', 
then it appeared to fit in with Graptophyllum ; for although the 
inflorescence is not that of the well-known G. pictum Griff. (G. 
liortense Nees), the Australian G. Earlii F. Muell. has a very similar 
arrangement of its flowers. But Graptophyllum has, besides two 
stamens, a couple of staminodes, organs there is no sign of in the plant 
under notice, though it is undoubtedly its affinity. In the absence of 
staminodes it agrees with the Papuan Calycacanthus, but this genus 
has quite a different corolla. 

172. Peristrophe fera var. intermedia Clarke. 

Daban, 650 ft. 

Distrib. Pegu, Tenasserim. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 155 

APETAUE. 

By S. Moore. 
POLYGONAGEjE. 
173. Polygonum chinen.se L. 
Dran, 3,000—4,000 ft. 
Distrib. India, China, Japan, Malaya. 

174. Polygonum strigosum R. Br. 
Dran, 3,000—4,000 ft. 
Distrib. India, China, Malaya. 

PIPERAGEJE. 
175. Peperomia reflexa Dietr. 
Langbian Peaks, 6,500—7,500 ft. 

Distrib. East Asia, Malaya, Australia, Africa, America. 
NEPENTHAGE.-E. 
176. Nepenthes annamensis Macfarl. 
Lian Khanh Falls, 3,000 ft., and Dalat 5,000 ft. "In swampy 
grass-land. Pitchers yellow to green with crimson or pinkish spots." 
The specimens have been compared with authentic material 
in the Kew Herbarium .with which they seem to agree well, except 
that none of the pitchers have the ciliats wings sometimes found on 
those of JST. annamensis. The latter's flowers and fruits Avere not 
seen by Macfarlane (Pnanzenreich, 36 Heft (IV. iii.) p. 39.); the 
fruits, but not the flowers, can now be described; they are borne in 
a rather close raceme about 6 cm. in length on about 35 cm. long 
peduncles, and are fusiform in shape, with oblong-lanceolate, trun- 
cate, glabrous, palely-shining, brown valves, varying in length from 
12 to 15 mm. 

The above naming must obviously be regarded as provisional. 
Distrib. Annam. 

ELAEAGNAGE.E 

177. Elaeagnus annamensis S. Moore, sp. no v. 

Ramuli graciles subteretes brunneo-lepidoti mox glabrescentes. 

Folia petiolata obovato-oblonga obtusa vel obtusissirna basi obtusa 

chartacea supra cito glabra leviterque nitidula subtus arete brunneo- 

argenteo lepidota nervis lateralibus utrinque 5-6 supra planis subtus 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



156 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

prominulis. Flares pedicellati axillaries solitarii vel pauci ramulos 
breves subambellatim terminantes omnimodo arete brunneo-argenteo- 
lepidoti. Per Ui nthium inferne oblongo-ovoideum supra constric- 
tionem anguste campanulare lobis ovatis acutis tubum semiaequn- 
tibus. Filamenta antheris paullulum longiora basi annulo parum 
prominulo pubescente connexa. Fructus subovoideus fortasse fere 
exsiccus saltern in siceo anguste a.lateus arete lepidotus. 

Langbian Peaks, 6,000 ft. 

Apparently a shrub with slender, leafy, brown branches. 
Leaves with the blade 5-7 x 3-4 cm., but sometimes smaller or larger, 
green or grey-green above and at first covered with small scales 
which soon disappear, closely scurfy below ; petioles usually about 
1 cm. in length, closely scurfy. Pedicels slender, up to 12 mm. in 
length, though often shorter. Perianth with the adherent portion at 
first only 2 x 1.5 mm., but rapidly enlarging to 10 x 5 mm.; free 
portion (including the 4 x 3 mm. lobes) 12 mm. long, 3 mm. wide 
at the base, anl 6.5 mm. under the limb; the lobes with fewer silvery 
scales on their inner than upon their outer face. Filaments 2 mm. 
long; anthers broadly oblong, obtuse at either end, 1.5mm. long 
Style shortly exserted, 11 mm. long. Fruit apparently not yet quite 
ripe, 15 x 7 mm. 

In foliage this agrees with the widely diffused E. latifolia L; 
the longer slender pedicels and the size and the shape of the perianth, 
both tube and limb, are, points of difference. 

LORANTHACE^E. 
178. Loranthus (§Elytranthe) dranensis S. Moore, sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens. Rami subteretes longitrorsum costati 
crassiusculi glabri. Folia opposita petiolata oblongo-lancaolata vel 
ovato-oblonga obtusa obtusis-simave basi rotundata costis la,teralibus 
utrinque saltern 12 parum perspicius rete arcto sejunctio opacta 
coriacea glabra. Spicae 2-3-flora3 pedunculo brevi valido insidentes. 
Bracteae bracteolae que amplae ca.lycem facile superantes ovato- 
oblongae obtusae vel apice rotundatie crassae glabrae. Galycis tubus 
oblongo-ovoideus truncatus. Corolla ex bracteis longe eminens tubo 
incurvo sursum gradatim dilatato quam lobi 6 anguste lineari- 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 157 

lanceolatl acutiusculi long lore. Filamenta yalida compressa antheris 
linearibus acutis. Stigma subglobosun. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Branches pale-coloured, the oldest 5 mm., the younger 2- 
3 mm. wide. 

Leaves with a b'ade 8 5-12 cm. long, at the middle 3.5-4 cm. 
broad, grey -green when dry ; petioles stoutish, channelled above 
about 2 cm. long. Peduncles, 5-7 mm. long, somewhat angular, 3 mm. 
across, after boiling. Bracts and bracteoles about 1 cm. in length, the 
former rugulose on the bick, reddish brown. Calyx-tube 4 mm. long. 
Corolla tube (unmoisteaed) about 3 cm. long, 3 mm. wide below, 
5 mm. near the top, pink ; lobes 2 cm. long, purple at base, carmine 
above. Filaments (of bud) 7 mm., anthers 5 mm. long. Berry 
ovoid, 10 x 8 mm., brown when ripe. 

L. albidus Bl. has similar foliage, but slenderer peduncles, 
smaller bracts and bracteoles and corollas unlike in several respects. 
BALANOPHORACEjE 
179. Balanophora (Diphora) annamensis S. Moore, sp. no v. 

Rhizoma sparsim lobatum omnimodo pustulis stellatis arete 
indutum. Squama'} pedunculi paucae imbricata ovatae vel ovato- 
oblo igae obtusae. Capitula magna dioica. Bracteae 6 oblongo-obo- 
voide.ie triquetrae apice truncatae tuberculioque parvulis obsitae. 

Periantldum 4-5-lobum lobis oblongo-lanceolatis. Antherae 
4-5 in columnam connatae loculis hippocrepiformibus. Flores $ recep- 
taculo necnon spadicellorum ampul! if ormium stipiti crasso inserti. 
Ovarium subsessile ovoideum in stylum loniorem desinens. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. ; Langbian Peaks, 6,000 ft. 

Bliizome up to 7 cm. in thiekness, sometimes reduced to 3 cm. ; 
pustules dull brown, nearly 3 mm. high and somethat more in 
diameter, each with several deep radiating grooves. Peduncle short, 
about 1-1.5 cm. long and some 2 cm. broad; the squamae coriaceous, 
brown, shining, 3-nearly 4 x 1.5-nearly 2 cm. Receptacle d cylindrical, 
8x4 cm. Perianth with flattened 10-14 x 1.5-2 mm. tube and 5 mm. 
long spreading lobes. Bracts 4-5 mm. wide, at the more or less quad- 
rangular top 3x3 mm. Staminal column 6 mm. long. Receptacle 2 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



158 MESSRS. BAKER, MOORE, RENDLE, RIDLEY AND WERNHAM 

obovoid-pvriform, 6 cm. long, 2.2 em. wide, below, 4 cm. above. Spa- 
dicels on .75 mm. long stalks, the bcdy twice as long. Ovary .4 mm. 
long ; style barely 1 mm. 

The material consists of two specimens, two male and two 
female, only the latter with the rhizoma attached. Nevertheless they 
are considered to form but one species, and that although the 
receptacular bracts are broader in one case and a little differently 
i narked on their truncate top; this, however, may perhaps be a 
matter of age. 

Besides the deeply furrowed pustules of the rhizome the chief 
marks of the species are the quadrangular tuberculate tops of the 
bracts, the bottle-shaped spadicels and the subsessile ovaries. 

8ANTALACE.E. 
180. Phacellaria toxkixexsis Lecomte. 

Dran, 3,000-4,000 ft. 

Agrees with the description in Bull. Mus. Nat. Paris, 1914, p. 
399, except that the most advanced fruit, evidently not yet ripe, 
measures only 5 mm. in length instead of 8-9 mm. Some doubt must 
therefore attend this determination, especially as M. Lecomte, with 
one exception, does not give floral measurements. 

Bhstrib. Tonkin. 

EUPHORBIACE.fi. 
181. Melaxthesop.sis fruticosa Muell.-Arg. 

Tour Cham. 

Distrib. South China, Cochin-China, Borneo. 

182. Ostodes Kerrii Craib. 

Langbian Peaks, 5,000-6,000 ft. " A small tree. Flowers 
pinkish-white. Stamens pale yellow/' 
Distrib. Siam. 

183. Homoxoia riparia Lour. 
Daban, 650 ft. 

Distrib. India, Malay Peninsula, and Malay Archipelago. 
URTWACE^E. 
184. Boehmeria xivea Hook. & Arn. 
Dran, 3,000-4,0000 ft. 

JOURX. XAT. hist. soc. siam. 



ON PLANTS FROM ANNM. 159 

Distrib. East Asia. Malaya. 

JUGLANDAGBM 

185. Engelhardtia spicata Bl. 
Langbian Peaks, 6,500 ft. 

Distrib. India, South China, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 
CASUARINACEjE. 
186. Casuarina equisetifolia L. 
Nhatrang. 

Distrib. India (chiefly cultivated) to Australia and Polynesia. 
GYMNOSPERMAE. 
TAXACEjE. 

187. Dacrydium elatum Wall. 
Le Bosquet, 5,200 ft. 
Distrib. Malay Peninsula and Western Archipelago, Cochin 



China. 



CRYPTOGAMS 

BY A. Gepp. 
PTERIDOPHYTA. 

188. Adiantum Klossii Gepp, sp. nova. 

Stipite c. 20 cm. longo ad basin ramentaceo scabrove atropur- 
pureo nitido, ramis alternis superne pubescentibus ; fronde 12-15 cm* 
longa, 10—12 cm. lata, deltoideo-ovata tripinnata, pinnis infimis 
obscure pedatis ; segmentis alternis subrotundatis ssepe dimidiatis 
interdum late cuneatis, 8-10 mm. latis, margine externo crenulatis, 
papyraceis firmis glabris inferne glaucescentibus, haud deeiduis ; 
venulis flabellatim dispositis furcatis marginem cartilageneum at- 
tingentibus ; soris 3 — 5 parvis rotundatis contiguis vel confluentibus. 

Daban, 650 ft. 

An intermediate species allied to A. flabellulaium in sori and 
pubescence but not in habit. It appears to differ from A. induratum 
Christ (Langbian) in its larger frond, pubescent petioles and less 
opaque segments, from A. Bonii Christ (Tonkin) in size, ramification, 
pubescence and sori, and from Copeland's two Philippine species, A. 
cupreum and A. opacum, in its non-deciduous segments. 

189. Selaginella atroviridis Spring. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



160 ON PLANTS FROM ANNAM. 

Dalat, 5,000 ft. 

Distrib. S. India to Fornioso. 

BRYOPHYTA. 

190. POGONATUM ALOIDES Brid. 
Langbian Peaks, 7,000 ft.; in pine and oak forest. 
Distrib. Europe, Asia, Africa. 

LICHENES. 
191. Lob aria pulmonaria Hoffm. 
Langbian Peaks, 6,000 ft, 
Distrib. All temperate regions. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



161 



REPORT ON A COLLECTION OF DRAGONFLIES FROM THE LAO COUNTRY. 

BY 

Major F. C. Fraser, I. M. S. 
With a Plate. 

[ The dragonflies here listed were obtained by a native 
collector during a recent expedition to the north of Siam and 
adjacent portion of Indo-China, in the region drained by the upper 
reaches of the Mekong river. The party was badly handicapped for 
want of a capable and trained man in charge, and this explains the 
poor results obtained. The following localities are referred to in this 
paper. 

Utaradit, in central Siam. , 

Nong Nam Pi, Na Kram, Ban Siew, Pak Tah, Chet Ton, on 
the caravan route between Utaradit and Pak Lai. The road crosses 
a range of hills, the highest point of which is reached near Chet 
Ton, about 1800 feet altitude. Pak Lai or Pak Lay is in French 
Laos, on the Mekong river (Lat 18° 15' N.). 

Ban Pak Tung on the Mekong, N. of Pak Lai. 

Ban Manao, on the Mekong, N. of Saniaburi (Lat. 17o 50' N.). 

Ban Nua, Ban Na An, Ban Na Sao, to the E. of Saniabouri. 
From Hin Boon, to the south of this town, a caravan road runs N. 
E. to Vinh on the gulf of Tonkin. The route crosses a range of 
hills, and at its highest point is about 1,000 feet above sea level. 
The country there is described as " high mountains, no jungle, but 
rocks and tall grass." Eds.]. 

The collection consists of 165 specimens and is only poorly 
representative of the rich Odonate fauna of the region visited. As proof 
of this, I need only mention that there is not a single species present 
of the large subfamily Gomphiwae, and there are only 6 representa- 
tives of the whole of the suborder Zygoptera which form fully 50 
per cent of the Odonate fauna of the region. It is obvious that the 
native collector passed over the smaller species as unworthy of 
collecting (there are only 2 specimens of Coenagrioninae), and for 
the rest he took those most calculated to attract his attention 
by reason of their striking colours or size. The Corduliinae, 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



162 MAJOR F. C. FRASER ON 

Aeshninae, Gomphinae, Libellaginde (except for a specimen of 
Micromerus lineatus) are all unrepresented. 

1. PoTOMARCHA OBSCURA Rami). 

A female from Na Kram, which is brightly coloured as in 
the wet season forms. 

2. Orthetrum sabina Drury. 

2 males and a female from Ban Siew. 

3. Orthetrum pruixosum Burnr. 

1 female from Bang Pak Tung, and 2 males from Na Kram. 
4. Crocorthetrum smithi, sp. nov. 

A single male from diet Ton, Jan. 1, 1920. 

Length of hindwing 34 mm. Abdomen 28 mm. 

Head comparatively small ; eyes moderately contiguous ; occi- 
pital plate large ; frons flattened in front and shaped as two horse- 
shoe shaped areas separated by the suture which is deep. The eyes 
are blood red, paler below, the face dark ochreous and blood red on 
the frons and above, as is also the vesicle. Occiput dark reddish 
brown. 

Prothorax with a very large posterior lobe which is fringed 
with long hairs. Reddish brown. 

Thorax moderately robust, almost naked save on the front of 
dorsum, colour a golden, reddish brown. 

Legs reddish, distal ends of femora and tibiae black ; hind 
femora with a row of short, robust, moderately closely set and 
gradually lengthening spines ; mid femora with fewer but longer 
spines. Tarsal claws robust, situated nearest the apex. 

Abdomen dilated dorso-ventrally at the base, triquetral, taper- 
ing from base to apex, bright crimson without markings. 

Anal appendages reddish, the superior as long as the 9th 
abdominal segment, inferior shorter, excavate above at the base and 
with two minute points at the end, the rudiments of a fissure. 

Genital organs ; lamina depressed, fringed with stiff, short, 
golden hairs. Its outer surface furnished with two long tufts of hair 
the ends of which are a little recurved ; internal hamules blunt, 
strongly curved, converging hooks; external hamules small, flattened 
and not over lapping the lobe; lobe subquadrate, small. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC SIAM. VOL. IV, PLATE 3. 




F. w. Campion photo. 



Crocorthetrum smithi. 



DRAGONFLIES FROM THE LAO COUNTRY. 163 

Wings hyaline, the extreme apical margin a little enfumed, the 
bases satfronated deeply in the forewing for about halfway to the 
1st antenodal nervure, and in the hindwing to the 1st antenodal 
nervure and line of midrib of loop, extending back nearly to the 
anal angle. 

Stigma dark reddish brown, over about 2 cells, equal in both 
wings, 3 mm ; membrane dark grey ; arc between the 2nd and 3rd 
antenodal nervures ; trigone in the hindwing a little proximal to the 
arc ; both trigones traversed once ; costal side of trigone in forewing 
shorter than half the proximal ; subtrigone 3 cells ; discoidal field 
with 3 rows of cells as far as the node, widely dilate:! at the termen ; 
Gui strongly convex ; 1 cubital nervure in the forewing, 2 in the 
hind ; all hypertrigones except that of the right hindwing traversed 
once ; 2 rows of cells between Rs and Rspl ; no supplements to the 
bridge ; sectors of arc shortly fused in the forewing, a longer fusion 
in the hindwing; 15 antenodal nervures ki the forewing, 10 post- 
nodals ; loop well developed, long and narrow, extending 3 cells 
beyond the outer angle of trigone. 

CrocortJietrum smithi resembles a Crocothemis superficially, 
but the large size of the posterior lobe of the prothorax and the 
position of the arc place it in very near relation to Orthetrum. The 
2 cubital nervures in the hindwing will serve to distinguish it at 
once from any species of the latter genus. (I overlooked it at first 
examination, having mistaken it for Crocothemis servilia which it 
much resembles). 

Type specimen deposited in the British Museum. 
5. Palpopleura sexmaculata Fabr. 

2 females from Na Kram. These do not differ from type. 

6. Diplacodes trivialis Ramb. 

3 males and 2 females from Na Kram. 2 females from Nong 
Nam Pi and Ban Siew respectively. 

7. Neurothemis tullia tullia Drury. 
A single female from Na Kram. 

8. Neurothemis fulvia Drury. 
1 pair from Na Kram, 1 male from Ban Siew, and 1 male 
from Ban Nua. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. v 



164 MAJOR F. C. FRASER ON 

9. Neurothemis intermedia intermedia Ramb. 

8 males and 4 females from Ban Manao, Ban Nua, Ban Na An 

and Ban Na Sao. 

LO. Crocothemis servilia servilia Druiy. 

1 male from Na Kram and another from Ban Siew. 

11. Trithemis aurora aurora Burm. 

Several of both sexes from Utaradit, Nong Nam Pi, Na Kram 

and Pak Tah. 

12. Trithemis festiva Ramb. 

1 male from Na Kram. 

13. Brachythemis contaminata Fabr. 

2 males from Na Kram. 

14. Tholymis tillarga Fabr. 
Several of both sexes from Na Kram and 1 male from Nong 
Nam Pi. 

15. Neurobasis chinensis Linn. 
4 males and 2 females from Na Kram. 

16. Vestalis gracilis Ramb. 
Several males and females from Ban Manao, and Ban Na Sao. 
These do not bear any trace of a dark, apical fascia as in apicalis, 
but I am inclined to consider the former as a teneral variety of the 
latter. 

17. PSEUDOPHAEA MASONI Selys. 

1 male from Na Kram and 2 males from Pak Tah. These 

do not differ from type. The female of this species is apparently 

rarely seen, which accords with my experience of other members of 

the genus. 

18. MlCROMERUS LINEATUS Burm. 

The markings on the first 6 abdominal segments vary widely 

but I regard this as merely an evdence of age, as some compare 

closely with specimens from Ceylon, whilst others are exactly similar 

to specimens from Dehra Dun, N. India. The specimens, males 

and 1 female were all taken at Pak Tah. All the males have a well 

developed, apical, black marking. 

19. COPERA, MARGINIPES. 

1 male from Nong Nam Pi and a female from Na Kram. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



DRAGONFLIES FROM THE LAO COUNTRY. 165 

20. COELICCIA MEMBRAN1PES Ramb. 

1 male from Na Kram. 

It will be seen from the above that dragonflies were only 
collected from 11 out of the many camps at which the collector stayed, 
which explains the paucity of the collection. 

Examples of all have been deposited in the British Museum. 



VOL. IV, .NO. 3, 1921. 



167 

some undescribed rhopalocera from siam. 
By 

N. D. Riley, f.z.s., f.e.s. and E. J. Godfrey, b.rc, f.e.s. 

With 4 Plates. 
The following descriptions of Butterflies, obtained mainly 
since the publication of Godfrey's " Butterflies of Siam " in this 
Journal of 1916, are issued as a preliminary to a revised list of 
Siamese Butterflies which it is hoped to publish before long. The 
whole of the material collected up till March 1920 has been over- 
hauled afresh, so that it is hoped that any errors which may have 
crept into the first list will be rectified in the next. 

Most of the new forms, it will be noticed, are from the 
Me Song forest, N. Siam, a few from S. E. Siam, and one only from 
Peninsular Siam. One interesting fact has been frequently brought 
out in going through the collections, namely, the considerable 
difference between the fauna of Northern and Western Siam and that 
of S. E. Siam. Of the forms described below, only one (Allot inus 
posidion) of the five from Eastern and S. Eastern Siam has been 
met with in any form in North and West Siam so far, nor have any 
of those described from the Me Song forest, with the exception of 
Penthema binghami mimetica, been met with in any other part of 
Siam. It is hoped soon to draw up a table shewing the distribution, 
so far as ascertained, of the Butterflies of Siam, using the divisions 
adopted in the previous paper, when the very real faunistic differences 
of thesa areas will be more obvious. 

All the Types of the forms here described as new, as well as 
the Types of those described in the previous paper have been pre- 
sented to the British Museum (Natural History), together with a 
short series of practically every species so far obtained in Siam. 

We take this opportunity of figuring the following forms 
already described in the previous paper in this Journal : — 

Gerydu.s ancon siamensis Godfrey. (Plate V, figs. 8 and 9.) 

Terinos terpander intermedia Godfrey. (Plate VII, figs. 2 and 3.) 

Everes rileyi Godfrey. (Plate VII, figs. 4 and 5.) 

Hestia leucoxoe siamensis Godfrey. (Plate VII, fig. 6.) 

and also 

Thauria lathyi siamensis Rothschild. (Plate VII, fig. 1.) 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



168 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

All the figures have been drawn from the actual Type speci- 
mens by Miss O. F. Tassart. By an unfortunate error of the 
printers, these have, in the pr-ocess of reproduction, been reduced in 
size, those in Plates IV, V and VII, to approximately 4, 5ths., and those 
in Plate VI to approximately 9/10ths. the natural size. 

PAPILIONIDiE 

1 Papilio laos, sp nov. 

(Plate IV, fig. 1.) 

d\ Upperside, foreiving. — Dark shiny blue-black, immaculate, 
the distal half of costal area lighter, slightly greenish, the interner- 
vular and cellular rays darker, not very conspicuous. Hindwing. — 
Not so dark (except the cell and towards the base of the wing) ; 
tinged with greenish. There are pink bilunulate submarginal spots 
present in areas 2 and 3, extending right across these areas, in area 
4, incomplete, and in area 5, almost obsolete, each densely irrorated 
with black scales and bordered outwardly by an indistinct quadrate 
dark blue-black spot reaching the margin, and inwardly surmounted 
by conical spots of the same colour. The cottony lining of the 
abdominal pocket is very pale ochreous, almost white. There are 
traces of pink scaling inwardly at the tips of the conical dark spots 
referred to, in areas 2 and 3, and at the distal end of the abdominal 
fold. 

Underside, both wings. — As above, except that the foreiving 
is dull blue-black not shiny, and paler than the hindwing, so that 
the internervular and cellular rays are more conspicuous ; and that 
in the hindwing the pink spots are more fully developed and free of 
dark scaling , and consist of a submarginal series of 5 spots, i. e., in 
areas 2 to 6, and a discal series of four cresceotic spots in areas 2 to 5, 
that in area 5 being minute, the others increasing in size progressiv- 
ely. In each series the spot in area 2 overflows into area lc, the 
submarginal one only slightly, the discal one very considerably. The 
ground-colour of the hindwing is nearly uniform on the underside, the 
Greenish tin^e beingr confined to costa and hind-margin and the 
extremities of the veins. 

Head clothed with red hairs tipped, except above, with black. 

JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM, 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 169 

Thorax black except below close to the wings, where it is red. Abdo- 
men red, spotted laterally with black, shiny blue-black above. 

Length of forewing. — 57 mm. 
"" B. M. Type No. Rh. 114, 6, Ban Na Sao, French Laos, 23. 
2. 20. 

This species, of which only the single male described is at 
present known, has the size, build and shape of P. alcinous Klug. It 
has, however, a smaller tail, it lacks the usual grey appearance, es- 
pecially of the underside, of that insect, and the lining of the abdo- 
minal fold is almost white, resembling P. plutonius Oberth'Ar. Also 
the spots, especially of the underside, of the hindwing are more 
numerous and much more irregular in outline. 

The Type specimen was taken by a Siamese collector and, at 
the time the description was written at the British Museum, it was 
thought that Ban Na Sao, the type locality, was in Siamese territory. 
Subsequent enquiries have shown that this is not so — Ban Na Sao 
being actually in French Laos, E. of Saniabouri, about 40 miles from 
the Siamese frontier. 

PIERID^E. 

2. Delias agoranis H. G. Smith. 

Delias agor.mis, H. G. Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5), xx, p. 

226 (1887). 
Piccarda agoranis, Moore, Lep. Ind. vi, p. 182, pi. 535, figs. 2, 2* 

(1905). 
Deli is agostint, race agoranis, Bingham, Fauna Br. Ind. Butt, ii, 

p. 147 (1907). 
Deli is singh ipurr agoranis, Fruhstorf er, in Seitz Macro-lep., ix, p. 

124 (1910). 
As the above references indicate, this species has been some- 
what unfortunate in its treatment by recent authors. We consider it 
a good Sp3cies, equally distinct from both singhapura and agostina, 
though certainly somewhat intermediate in some respects between the 
two. Our specimens agree perfectly with Moore's figure which was 
made from the Type specimen. 

Singhapura has the veins of the underside of the hindwing 
heavily marked with black; this is entirely absent in agoranis. 
Agostina is similarly devoid of this black veining, but then it has a 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



170 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

narrow, even, black marginal border to the hindwing below enclosing 
long narrow rectangular white marks. In agoranis this border is 
more than double the width, runs up in conical projections along the 
veins and encloses oval or circular white patches. In singhapura 
the enclosed spots are still larger, frequently divided in two by a 
narrow black line, semi-circular in shape, reaching from vein to vein 
and cut off squarely by the veins. 

NYMPHALID^E. 

SATYRINiE. 

3. Mycalesis siamica, sp. nov. 

(Plate IV, figs. 2 and 3.) 

cf. Upperside, forewing. — Dark brown with two parallel 
narrow darker marginal lines, the markings of the underside (princi- 
pally the lighter marginal area and the paler subapical bar) showing 
through. In area la, rather towards the base, is a large dull pur- 
plish shiny area, and above this, in area lb close to vein 1 which 
curves below it, a single pencil of hair, its free end resting in a small 
oval patch of dark shiny scales. There is a further sex-mark in area 
3 in the form of a diffuse mealy patch of dull ochreous scales, just 
reaching the edge of the lighter marginal area. Hindwing. — Slight- 
ly darker than the forewing, underside markings not showing 
through so conspicuously, marginal lines the same as in forewing. 
Darker towards costa, velvety. A dark brown pencil of hair arises 
near the base of cell and curves slightly towards costa, so as to lie 
along the nearly white oval patch of scales towards the base of 
area 7. 

Underside, both wings. — Very dark velvety brown, lighter 
basally, margins broadly silvery grey, marginal lines as above. 
Forewing. — The marginal silver-grey band, lightest in areas 4 
to 6 proximally (the subapical bar of upperside mentioned 
above), is broadest on the costa. Its inner edge extends 
in an almost even gentle curve from costa just before end of 
vein 12 to centre of area 4, where it is rather sharply angled and 
runs almost straight and parallel to the margin, to vein 2, thence 
inwardly slightly to vein 1, where it merges into the shiny inner- 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 171 

marginal area. Enclosed in the band are ocelli in areas 2 (the 
largest), 3 and 4 (minute), and 5 and 6 (larger), those in 2 to 5 
in line, that in 6 inward. There is an additional wavy antemarginal 
line, removed some 3 mm. from apex at costa, bu'; closely approximat- 
ing to the marginal lines in area lb, and^the area between this wavy 
antemarginal line and the margin has a slight ochreous tinge. 
Hindiving. — The lighter marginal band darker grey than on fore- 
wing, conforming more to the shape of the margin, darkest posteri- 
orly, and enclosing seven ocelli, i. e., two in area 16, one each in 
areas 2 to 6. Of these, that in area 2 is the largest, those at either 
end the smallest, the remainder sub equal, and all are arranged in an 
even curve except for that in 3, which is set slightly inwards. An- 
temarginal band as in forewing, most widely separated from margin 
in areas lb and 5, the area beyond tinged with ochreous. 

9. Upperside, both wings. — Like the male, but larger and 
lighter in colour, the underside markings more conspicuous above. 
Forewing. — The subapical white bar is present on upperside, diffuse, 
extending from costa into area 3, about 2.5 mm. broad, straight, the 
ocellus in area 2 present above. Margin lighter. Hindiving. — 
Margin pale ochreous, except towards anal angle. 

Underside, both wings. — Exactly like the male but paler. 

In both sexes the body, thorax and head, above and below, 
conform to the colouration of the base of the wings. Antennae 
slightly orange below towards the tip. 

Length of forewing. — 6 22 mm ; 2 24.5 mm. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 117, 6 ; 118, 9, Me Song forest, Prae, N. 
Siam, April 1918. 

In addition to the Types, nine males and three females were 
obtained in the same locality in April 1918 and three females in 
April 1916. 

4. Ragadia, critias, sp. nov. 
(Hate IV, fig. 4.) 

c?. Upperside, both wings. — Very dark brown, almost black, 
basally paler, the markings of the underside showing through. 
Forewing. — A creamy white transverse oblique discal band from 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



172 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

area 5, where it is from 1 to 1.5 mm. wide, to inner margin just 
beyond middle, where it is about 2.5 mm. wide ; traces of a similar 
much narrower antemarginal band run very indistinctly through 
areas 1« and 2 ; both bands are interrupted by the darker veins, espe- 
cially anteriorly, and the outer edge of the discal band is somewhat 
sinuate. Hindiving. — The transverse band of forewing is continued 
across hindwing, its outer edge rather irregular, tapering towards 
inner margin and curving slightly towards, but not quite reaching, 
anal angle ; this band is separated by a wide band of the ground- 
colour from the irregular curved antemarginal white band, from 1 to 
1.5 mm. wide, which runs from apex almost to anal angle, and is 
widest centrally and posteriorly. A single tuft of jet-black hairs lies 
in an oblique pocket towards base of cell. 

Underside, both wings. — As above. Foreiving. — In addition, 
having the transverse band extending to area 7, where it becomes 
reduced to a point, and having two very pale grey narrower 
transverse bands roughly paralled to it and at regular intervals be- 
tween it and the base of the wing. The swollen part of vein 12 is 
similarly coloured, the submarginal band is fully developed, narrow, 
extending from vein 1 to vein 6, and there is a similar very fine 
marginal line. The dark band of ground-colour separating discal 
and submarginal bands bears ocelli in areas let (double), 2 to 7 (one 
each), making seven in all. Of these that in area 7 is minute, while 
the remainder are all of much the same size, but become more and 
more indistinct posteriorly. The hindwing repeats the pattern of 
the forewing, the basal and sub-basal bands slightly broader than the 
corresponding bands of the forewing, the marginal and submarginal 
bands fully developed, the former threadlike at its extremities and 
just uniting with the ends of the submarginal band, thus enclosing a 
long narrow crescent of the ground-colour. The broad discal band 
of ground-colour interior to this bears only five ocelli, of which the 
two in area lb are the smallest and are united, those in areas 2 and 
6 are larger and equal in size, whilst that in area 4 is very large, 
simple, and extends considerably into areas 3 and 5 on either side. 

9. Upperside, both iv'mgs. — Paler brown than in the male, 

JOUItN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



SOME UNDESCRlBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 173 

the wings more rounded, the submarginal baud of forewing not 
obscurel in areas la and 2. Underside. — Pale markings somewhat 
more developed, the very large ocellus in area 4 of hindwing partial- 
ly fused with that in area 2. Otherwise as in the male. 

Length of forewing. — 6 20 mm; $ 21 mm. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 115, o ; 116, ?, Nam Pat, 36 miles E. 
of Utaradit, N. E. Siam, Jan. 1920. 

This species is separable at onee from R. crisilda Hewitson, 
R. critolau? and R. cristata de Niceville, its nearest allies, by the 
number of the ocelli on the underside of the hindwing. In crisilda 
there are invariably seven, those in areas 3, 4 and 5 being fused ; in 
the other two species there are six, that in area 3 being absent, and 
those in areas 4 and 5 fused. In criti is there are only five. The 
broad dark discal band of hindwing which bears the ocelli is much 
broader in critias than in either of de Niceville's species, and is 
bordered externally by a muc'i better defined white band than in 
crisilda. 

Morphine. 

5. Stichophthalma cambodia editha, ssp. nov. 

(Plate IV.. fig. 5.) 

d $. Upperside both wings. — Similar to S- c. cambodia 
Hewitson, but with the discal pale area rather more extensive, 
brighter and clearer, less sprinkle! with brown scaling; the V- 
shaped marks in the discal series narrower, the tips not recurved, 
and each mark with a small conical median projection basad, 
making the marks more dagger-like in shape ; the antemarginal 
smoky -brown lunules reduced in size and almost surrounded by the 
pale discal colouration, except towards apex of forewing. In the 
female of editha the large proximal extension of the V-spot in area 
6 (typical of cambodia, the Type of which is a female) is partially 
suffused with bluish white scales, and has a white spot in the centre, 
whilst in the male it is absent altogether. 

Underside, both wings. — Considerably paler than in typical 
cambodia. In the male the forewing has the basal half reddish 
grey-brown, bordered by a narrow band of white, the latter broader 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



174 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

towards costa ; between this white band and the two red-brown 
ocelli (of which that in area 5 is almost obsolete) is a diffuse band of 
same colour as the base of the wing ; beyond this the general 
colouration is pale buffy, the upperside markings faintly showing 
through, darker towards margin. In the hindwing the ground- 
colour is more uniform, the same shade as base of forewing, the 
transverse white band and the area immediately external to it 
almost completely suffused with blackish, the distal half of wing 
rather redder than basal half. Markings as in ca/ffibodia. 
The female differs from the typical female in being lighter, 
clearer and more of a chestnut-brown in general colouration, 
in having the transverse white band of both wings con- 
siderably broader and in the hindwing hardly at all 
suffused with black, and the outer area of forewing considerably 
lighter than that of hindwing. The ocelli in both sexes are more 
narrowly ringed with black than in t}qjical eambodia and have an 
additional outer narrow ring of light grey. 

Length of forewing — d 1 61 mm; $ 65 mm. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 119, 6 ; 120, $, Khao Sebap, near Chan- 
tabun, S. E. Siam, Mareh 1916. 

S. eambodia was described by Hewitson in 1862 from the 
single female which is now in the British Museum, and which is still 
unique. Fruhstorfer in Seitz Macro-lep., ix, p. 425, suggests that 
it may be only a form of S lou'isa Wood-M>son. However, the occur- 
rence in Siam of 8. louisa siamensis, recently described by Lord 
Rothschild (Nov. Zool. xxiii, p. 308, 1916), together with the above 
described race of S. eambodia, establishes beyond doubt the validity 
of the species. 

In describing the subspecies we have had no male of typical 
eambodia for comparison, the female alone being known, but the 
females before us, as explained above, are so sufficiently distinct from 
the female Type of eambodia as to •warrant our belief that editha 
will prove to be a good subspecies. 



JOUKX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 175 

Nymphalinve. 
6. Penthema darlisa melema, asp. nov. 
( Plate V, fig. 1. ) 
d. Very similar to typical darlisa, but smaller, the white 
markings of forewing and the straw-coloured markings of hind wing 
slightly reduced in size, especially the latter. The bluish suffusion 
of forewing less pronounced, giving the insect a much browner ap- 
pearance. The underside shows a corresponding difference. 

Length of forewing. — 55 mm. (the Type of darlisa measures 
67 mm.). 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 122, cJ- Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam ; 
April 1918. 

This race should be readily recognisable by the characters 
given. The reduction in size of the lighter markings is particularly 
noticeable in the basal half of the hindwing. It was obtained in 
some numbers in the Me Song forest, during April 1916 and April 
1918. 

7. Penthema binghami mimetica Lathy. 
(Plate V, fig. 2.) 

Penthema mimetic./, Lathy, Entomologist, xxxiii, p. 213 (1900). 

P. d irlisa mimetica, Fruhstorfer, in Seitz Macro-lep., ix, p 464 (1912). 

P. mimetica was described by Lathy from a single female 
which came from Pak Jong, Central Siam, and which is now in the 
Adams Coll. in the British Museum. A second female was obtained 
at Hup Bon, S. E. Siam, in April 1914 and since then a number of 
males have been taken in the Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam. 

Fruhstorfer ( I. c. ) regards mimetica as a form of P. darlisa 
which he treats as a species dimorphic in both sexes. An examina- 
tion of the genitalia of these two forms, P. d. melema, and P. b. 
mimetica, however, entirely contradicts this view. Though super- 
ficially alike, actually these structures are very distinct in the two 
forms. In each species the uncus terminates in a long spike directed 
downwards almost at right angles to the long axis of the body. 
Slightly proximal to this there arises a pair of spines, not very close 
together, and running parallel to each other and to this terminal 
spike, their tips directed posteriorly. In melema these are very 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



176 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

nearly equal in length to the terminal spike of the uncus ; in 
mimetica, on the other hand, they are decided^ more delicate and 
only about 2 ( 3rds the length of the terminal spike. In each species 
also the clasp ends in a spike-like process which in melema, in 
proportion, is quite twice the size of that in mimetica, and also less 
clearly differentiated from the broad upward -curving anteterminal 
part of the clasp from which it arises. This latter part 
as well exhibits a difference in that it is broader and stumpier in 
mimetica, evenly tapering in me 1 emu. As a corollary to this it 
seems reasonable to suppose that typical binghami and darlisa are 
similarly distinct species; and, occuring together as they undoubtedly 
do, that they stand in the same relationship to each other in Burma 
as do mimetica and melema in Siam. 

8. Cirrochroa chione, sp. now 
(Plate V, fig. 3.) 
6 Upperzide, forewing. — Basal two-fifths brown, bounded 
by a slightly darker irregular line running from near costa, 2 mm. 
beyond cell-apex, to just beyond centre of vein 1, gently angled in 
area 2 (in another specimen the course of this line is rather more 
even). Costal area of same colour as base, the colour extending 
beyond edge of basal brown are.x, a darker shade across end of cell. 
Apex very broadly, and hind-margin (towards anal angle more 
narrowly) black, the inner edge of this black border curving roughly 
parallel to .the outer edge of the basal brown area and just reaching 
to middle of costa. The intermediate discal area is golden-brown in 
the form of a wide even band cut off" from the costa only by the 
narrow strip of apical black which reaches to middle of the costa. 
There are traces of. an antemarginal series of darker spots in areas 
lrt and 2, and of a submarginal line in area la. Hindwing. — Of the 
same colour as the base of forewing, rather brighter towards 
hind-margin. There is a subquadrate white spot centrally in area 
7, inwardly edged with black, from the outer edge of which runs a 
very fine direct irregular black line finishing at vein la about 
5 mm. above margin. Between this and the marginal black border, 
which throughout is about 1.5 mm. wide, are, firstly, a series of six 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 177 

8 mall black spots, there being none in area 4, secondly, a series of 
seven crescentic black marks reaching from vein to vein and nearly 
touching each other and, thirdly, a heavy black wavy line fusing 
with "the marginal border at each end. Abdominal area grey. 

Underside, bofh wings. — Pale ochreous, the markings of the 
upperside represented by brown. A narrow transverse wavy line 
crosses cell of forewing obliquely to origin of vein 2, thence to inner 
margin, and is continued interruptedly across hindwing as far as 
vein la. A very well-defined narrow straight black line starts at 
origin of vein 7 of forewing and runs uninterruptedly to anal angle 
of hindwing, is diffusely edged outwardly with brown, more 
particularly on hindwing, and bordered inwardly, on hindwing only, 
as far as the irregular transverse fiscal line, with dull mother-of- 
pearl. The forewing has a small oval apical patch of lilac-grey. 

The veins on upperside are throughout delicately black, those 
of forewing, and veins 5, 6 and 7 of hindwing being, in addition, 
edged with golden. 

Length of forewing.-32 mm. 

B. M. Type No. Kh. 121, 6, Khao Sebap, Chantabun, S. E. 
Siam, March 1916. 

On the upperside the markings of G. ehione much resemble 
those of C. orissa, but the light cliscal band is curved, not straight as 
in that species, and the basal dark area is bounded by a well-defined 
dark line. The markings of the hind-margin of the hindwing and 
of the underside are however very different, the latter more nearly 
resembling in arrangement those of C. surya, C. aoris and 
C. malaya. 

9. Neptis cartica meraca, ssp, nov. 
(Plate V, fig. 4.) 

d. Most closely resembles the subspecies burmana de Nice- 
ville, in the absence of brown suffusion of its white markings. With 
the exception of the longitudinal streak on the forewing, which is 
distally slightly cloudy, these are entirely pure white. They are 
however much smaller than in burmana, being approximately the 
size of those in typical cart ico ides Moore. The underside colouration 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



178 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

is as in hurmana, the white markings reduced as above. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 136, c?, Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam, 

April 1918. 

A veiy distinct race. This species may always be readily 
separated from those to which it bears a close resemblance on the 
upperside, such as N. soma and N. ricmdina, by the absence of the 
sub-basal streak, coupled with the far greater width of the basiil 
streak on the underside of the hindwing. 

10. Euthalia monina grahami, ssp. nov. 
(Plate V, figs. 5 and 6.) 

6. Separable at once from E. m. perakana Fruhstorfer, its 
nearest ally, by its larger size and the replacement of the broad 
distal bluish-green band of hindwing upperside by a completely 
bronze-green band, the anal angle alone showing some slight tinge of 
bluish. In perakana such green as is present is confined to the 
proximal half of this marginal band. ' The forewing also, especially 
costally, basally, along the veins and distally in areas la to 3 strong- 
ly bronze-green. Below, the ground- colour is a clearer brown than 
in perakana, the discal dark markings more pronounced. 

2. Dark markings of both surfaces as in perakana female, 
but not so heavy. Light markings larger, especially on hindwing, 
and paler. 

Length of forewing. — 6 29 mm ; 9, 35 mm. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 123, 6 ; 124, 2, Patani, Peninsular Siam. 

This new race of E. monina is particularly interesting, not 
only on account of its being so very distinct, but also because it 
appreciably extends the known range of the species. It has not 
previously* been recorded as occuring north of Perak, so far as we 
can ascertain. 

The Types, and only known specimens, were obtained by 
Mr. W. A. Graham and by him presented to the British Museum. 

RIODINIDvE. 
Nemeobiix.e. 
11. Laxita telesia boulleti Fruhst. 
(Plate V, fig. 7). 

Laxita boulleti, Fruhstorfer, in Seitz Macro-lep. ix, p. 790 (1916). 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM- 179 

Described by Fruhstorfer (I. c.) as a distinct species, of which 
he only knew the female Type in the Paris Museum. A single male 
specimen obtained in the Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam, in April 
1918 seems undoubtedly to be the male of this race. The specimen 
resembles L. t. lyolene de Niceville, but differs in having the 
apical red of forewing above much wider, and the white patch 
towards inner margin nearly twice as large. Unfortunately the 
specimen is so damaged that it is impossible to be sure of the shape 
of the hindwing. The basal and sub-basal markings are wanting, as 
is said to be the case in the female described by Fruhstorfer, and the 
other black markings are much reduced throughout as compared 
with lyclene. In addition, the markings which in that form are 
bluish, are in boulldi rather greenish, the discal markings of hind- 
wing more approximated to cell, and the marginal and submarginal 
bands narrower. 

Whilst very distinct from typical telesia Hewitson, we do not 
consider boulleti worthy of more than subspecific rank, and therefore 
treat it as a race of telesia. 

B. M. Type No. Eh. 137, d, Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam, 
April 1918. 

LYCM^WJE. 

GERYDINiE. 

12 Gerydus ancon siamensis Godfrey. 
( Plate V, figs. 8 and 9.) 

Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, ii, p. 134, 1916, d. 

?. In addition to the pronounced sexual differences in the 
shape of the wings etc., usual to the genus, has the pale area at the 
end of forewing cell developed to form an irregular diagonal trans- 
verse band, reaching from very near costa to vein 3 close to the 
round white spot in area 2 distally. The ground colour of both 
wings is a richer brown, not so grey as in the male. Below, the 
general tone is rich ochreous, forewing markings as above, hindwing 
with the short discal smoky band strongly developed. 

Length of forewing:. — 23 mm. 



VOL. IV, NO, 3, 1921. 



180 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 145, 2, Me Song forest, Prae, N. Skim, 
April 1916. 

The male only of this was known to, and described by God- 
frey (I.e.) from Muak Lek, E. Siam. Some 5 males and 6 females 
since obtained in the Me Song forest confirm the opinion then form- 
ed that this is a very distinct race of G. a neon. 

13. Allotinus posidion rekkia, asp. now 
(Plate VI, tigs 1 and 2.) 

A. horsfieldi continent dis, Godfrey [nsc FruhstorFer], Journ. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Siam, ii, p. 135 (1916). 

6. Differs from A. p. atacinus Fruhstorfer (in Seitz Macro- 
lep. ix, p. 811, 1916) by its blacker tone and by having the sex- 
mark at the base of vein 4 smaller and even less clearly differentia- 
ted from the ground-colour. 

2. Hardly separable above in markings from Burmese 
atacinus, the colouration, however, is paler and more greyish. This 
applies equally to the underside. 

Length of forewing. — cf, 16 mm; 2, 14.5mm. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 125, <*, Muak Lek, E. Siam, 7. 1.14. 
B. M. Type No. Rh. 126, 2, Pak Jong, E. Siam, 4. 1. 15. 
This species was previously recorded in error by Godfrey (I. c.) 

as A. horsfieldi continental is Fruhstorfer. This latter species, which 
so far is not known from Siam, is at once separable from rekkia, as 
in it veins 6 and 7 of forewing arise separately and directly from cell- 
end, whereas in rekkia they are stalked for some distance. A. posidion 
Fruhstorfer, closely resembles A. horsfieldi Moore, but throughout 
its range is consistently smaller. 

14. Allotinus drumila grisea, ssp. nov. 
(Plate VI, fig. 3.) 

2. Upperside, forewing. — White, basal third grey-brown 
merging distally into the white ground-colour, extending slightly 
into area 2, and divided in cell by a conical projection of the Avhite 
ground-colour directed towords the base. Apex very broadly, inner 
angle less so, and hind-margin wholly black. Fringes red-brown. 
Hindwing. — Entirely suffused with grey; costal area black. 

Underside. — As in typical A. drumila Moore. 

JOUltN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 181 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 127, 2, Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam, 
April 1918. 

Readily distinguished from typical drumila by the complete- 
ly grey hind wing and the greatly increased grey -brown suffusion of 
base of forewing. 

Lyclenesle. 

15. Talicada metana, sp. nov. 

(Plate VI, fig. 4.) 

2. Upperside, botJt ivings. — Dark sooty brown, the fringes 
chequered black and white. Forewing. — -Costal edge finely marked 
with white. Hindwing. — A broad orange band extends from anal 
angle to just short of vein 6, its inner edge slightly concave, its outer 
edge bounded in areas 16 and lc by a very fine black marginal line, 
and in areas 2, 3 and 4 by basally contiguous triangular black marks 
the apices of which project into the orange. 

Underside, both wings. — White, fringes as above. Fore- 
wing. — A heavy black mark crosses cell-end ; beyond this, and 
rather more than half-way to hind-margin, there is a transverse 
series of six heavy black roundish spots, in areas 16 to 6, curving 
slightly so that the spot in area 2 is nearest the base, that in area 4, 
which is also the longest, is the furthest removed and in fact fuses 
with the corresponding spot in the antemarginal series. This latter 
series consists of a complete row of black triangular spots, their bases 
much fused together, their apices produced along the veins as lines 
which extend to the very narrowly black margin. In each of the 
white spots of ground-colour so enclosed there is a small black lunule 
close to the margin, those in areas 16 and lc together forming an ob- 
long mark proximal to which the enclosed white area is sprinkled 
with orange. Hindwing. — Arrangement of markings similar to that 
of forewing but the spots of the antemarginal series, except in areas 6 
and 7, orange not black, the inner edge of the series very wavy, the 
enclosed spots of the marginal series increasingly larger from costa 
towards anal angle, but at anal angle smaller and partly orange. The 
black spots of the post-discal series much smaller than those of 
forewing, especially in areas 16, 3, 4 and 5, where they are reduced 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



182 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

to mere dots, in places partially merged into the orange antemarginal 
series. In addition there is a roundish black spot near the base of 
area 7, touching vein 8, but only extending little more than halfway 
across area 7 towards anterior margin of cell. 
Length of forewing. — 15 mm. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 127, 9, Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam, 
April 1918. 

The anteriorly jagged-edged and very much narrower orange 
terminal band of the hindwing above and, on the hindwing below, 
the absence of most of the basal and discal black markings together 
with the substitution of black for orange in the marginal series, 
readily distinguish this species from any of the forms of T. nyseus 
Guerin, with which we are acquainted. 

16. Azams urios, sp. now 
( Plate VI, fig. 5. ) 
tf. Uppersida, both wings. — Rich shiny purple, the cilia grey- 
brown but whitish towards apex. Forewing. — Hind margin broadly 
dark brown, broadest at costa; the Avhole of the disc of the wing 
covered by a silky patch of modified scales. Hindwing. — Costal 
area completely, and outer margin very broadly, dark brown. 

Underside, both wings. — Rather dark brown. Forewing. — 
Two minute black light-ringed spots just below costa, one 
slightly before, the other rather further beyond cell-end ; 
a broad mark across cell-end, a discal series, interrupted at 
vein 3, and a smaller and fainter antemarginal .series, are all com- 
posed of oblong spots slightly darker than ground-colour and edged 
internally and externally with light grey. In addition there is a 
marginal series of oval rather darker spots and a dark brown ante- 
ciliary line. Hindwing. — Similar to forewing, but the spots in the 
discal and antemarginal series smaller and less regularly arranged, 
the costal black spots much larger, the proximal one much nearer 
the base. In addition there is a sub-basal series of the small black 
spots, a larger black anal spot and a very much larger internally 
orange-bordered black spot in area 2, resting on the margin. 
Length of forewing. — 11.5 mm. 

JOUKN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



ERRATUM. 



Page 182, line 16 from bottom. After the word dark-brown 
add : — enclosing a darker spot in area 2 ; abdominal area 
light grey. 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 183 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 129, d, Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam, 
17. 4. 1916. 

Another specimen was obtained in the same locality on the 
following day, whilst a third is in the British Museum from Tilin 
Yaw, Upper Burma, 17. 4. 90, collected by Watson. 

This species has points of resemblance to both A. uranus 
Butler, and A. ubouldus Cramer. From the former it can at once be 
separated by its very broad dark margins and the darker tone of its 
underside, although it agrees very closely with it in underside, 
markings. From the latter it can as easily be distinguished, apart 
from the colouration of the upperside and the more rounded shape of 
its wings, by the absence of any trace of the basal streak on the 
underside of the forewing. It is also slightly larger than normal 
examples of the other two species mentioned. 

AltHOPALIN^E. 

17. Arhopala dispar, sp. nov. 
(Plate VI, fig. 8.) 

6 . Upperside, both wings. — Bright lilacine blue. Forewing. — 
A darker transverse mark at end of cell, the central area of wing paler, 
almost white in parts. Hindwing. — Costal area dark brown, marginal 
areas shaded with brown, tails dark brown, abdominal areas white. 

Underside, both wings. — Ground-colour dark shiny brown 
with a faint dull purplish tinge. Forewing. — Areas la, 16 and 2 
almost pure white; the three cell spots, costal spot and anterior 
part of transverse band all large and very dark brown, ringed or 
bordered with white ; remaining spots also large but paler ; the spots 
of transverse band oblong, the uppermost one reaching the costal spot 
(above cell-end), the next three in a regular row, very close to the 
third (distal) cell-spot, the two below, in areas 3 and 2, moved inwards 
so that the upper one touches the third cell-spot and also its extension 
in area 3; a large spot fills the base of area 2, and a very large irreg- 
ular spot in area 16 extends from base to well beyond origin of vein 
2 ; there is a shadowy submarginal series of spots slightly darker 
than the ground-colour and relieved with grey either side. Hindwing. 
— The costal basal spot, the basal row of four spots, of which the 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



184 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

third is oval and the fourth, and lowest, much the innermost, and 
the median row of three larger spots, of which the lowest is very long 
and lanceolate, are all very much darker brown than the ground- 
colour and very clearly ringed with white. The broad irregular spot 
at end of cell and the spots of the discal series are slightly paler. The 
latter is interrupted at veins 6, 4 and 2, and has the spot in area lc 
V-shaped, that in area 16 very long, lanceolate, nearly reaching 
the lowest spot of the basal series. There is a darker rather 
indefinite wavy grey-edged submarginal line and a marginal series 
of very indefinite brown crescentic spots in areas 6 to 3, continued 
by a similar but black spot in area 2, a large round black spot heavily 
blue-scaled in area lc and a much smaller one only slightly bluish in 
area 16. A conspicuous feature is the replacement of the ground- 
colour in the whole of area 6 and in the adjacent distal parts of areas 
5 and 7 by light greyish. 

Length of forewing. — 25 mm. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 130, tf , Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam, 
April 1918. 

Similar to A. camdeo Moore, but smaller, and most readily 
distinguished by the purplish-brown tint of the underside, the more 
even colour of the darker markings, which are also in proportion 
larger than in camdeo, the very different shape of the lowest spot of 
the median series of the hindwing ( we use the terminology of 
Bethune-Baker in his Revision of the Arhopalinae in the Trans. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1903 ), and the whiteness of the inner-marginal 
area of forewing and of area 6 of the hindwing. 

Another male, which we consider to be a form of this species, 
was taken at the same time and place as the Type, but differs in 
being of a rather brighter blue above and very much lighter and less 
heavily marked below. The differences given above, however, serve 
equally well to separate it" and the Type of dispar from A. camdeo 
Moore, with the Type of which both specimens have been compared. 
18. Arhopala opalina (Moore). 
( Plate VI, fig. 7. ) 

Nilasera op; din' i, Moore, Proc. Zool, Soc. London, 1883, p. 531, 



pi. 49. fig. 1. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 185 

Five males and a single female of this rare species were 
obtained in the Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam, in April 1918, and 
as the female does not appear to have been recorded hitherto we give 
below a, short description of it. It is a very close ally indeed of A. 
camdeo Moore. 

5. Upperside, forewing. — Basal third clear pale sky-blue, 
not tinged with lilac or purple as in the male ; outer two-thirds much 
paler, almost white ; costa, apex broadly, and hind-margin very dark 
brown ; a conspicuous oblong black mark at end of cell, and a very 
distinctive subapical series of three oblong black marks, one each 
centrally in areas 4, 5 and 6. Hindwing. — Similar to the male; 
the outer not so much paler than the basal areas ; the costa broadly, 
hind-margin narrowly dark brown. 

Underside, both wings. — Similar to the male, but with the 
ground-colour paler and the dark markings rather darker and more 
conspicuous ; the basal and median spots in forewing cell normal, not, 
as in the aberrant male Type, partially fused together. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 131, 2, Me Song forest, Prae, N. Siam, 
April 1918. 

19. Arliopala andamanica ignara, ssp. no v. 
(Plate VI, fig. 6.) 

S. Upperside. — Differs only from A. a, andamanica Wood- 
Mason and de Niceville, in having a very much narrower black 
margin to the forewing. Underside, — Ground-colour a much warmer 
reddish-brown, the transverse bands more conspicuous, smoky pur- 
plish ; the four spots of basal row, the lower three of median row and 
the linear mark across end of cell, faint but visible, smoky purplish. 

Length of forewing. — 20 mm. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 132, d, Me Song Forest, Prae, N. Siam, 
April 1918. 

A short series of this continental form of A. andamanica was 
obtained in the same locality as our Type. There are in addition in 
the British Museum two specimens, one from Tenasserim (Watson 
Coll.), the other from Toungoo (Godman & Salvin Coll.). The differ- 
ences are constant for the nine specimens examined. A. fulla 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



186 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

Hewitson, a closely allied species, may be separated at once from 
anrtamanica by the fact that the two smoky transverse bands of 
forewing below are widely divergent towards the costa, whereas in 
andamanica they run parallel throughout. 

Theclin^e. 
20- Rapala rhaecus de Niceville. 
Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 1895, p. 319, pi. P, fig. 47, <$ . 
„ „ „ 1896, p. 182, pi. T, fig. 40, 2. 

De Niceville (l. c.) very carefully describes and figures both 
sexes of this very distinct species, and supplements his description of 

the male with the remarks; "allied to R. tara, de Nicev but the 

blue colouration of the upperside is quite different, being darker and 
richer in shade, less iridescent, and in the forewing of greater 
extent ; the sexual patch is also smaller, barely extending into the 
submedian interspace, in R. tara it extends somewhat widely below 
the first median nervule ; the ground-colour of the underside is also 
quite different. " 

Swinhoe, however, in Lep. Ind. ix, p. 48, sinks it as a 
synonym of R. sphinx Fab., remarking that " de Niceville' s types of 
rhaecus, which undoubtedly represent this species, came from 
Sumatra ". Incidentally, Swinhoe also states at the same time that 
the Fabrican type of sphinx is in the Banksian Cabinet in the British 
Museum. This is not the case ; not only is the Type not there, there 
is not even a specimen of the species in the -Collection in question. 

Fruhstorfer in his Revision of (Eastern) Lycaenidae in the 
Berliner Ent. Zeit. lvi, p. 197, et seq. entirely omits the species. 

This is all the more curious as there is no mistaking the 
species. There are in the British Museum four males : 2 from 
Sumatra, 1 from Moulmein, Tenasserim, and 1 from Bhutan 
(G. C. Dudgeon) and one other male has been obtained in the Me 
Song forest, Prae, N. Siam. 

It is in the male abundantly distinct from any other species 
of Rapala with which we are acquainted, as, roughly speaking, it 
has the underside of sphinx and the upperside of tara. The male of 
rJiaecus has a small -very clearly defined sex-mark, triangular in 
shape, occupying the bases of areas 2 and 3 ; this is entirely absent 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 187 

in the male of sphinx. This alone separates the males at once 
without looking any further. Unfortunately we have not yet seen 
the female. 

21. Biduanda cyara (Hewitson). 

Myrlna cyara, Hewitson, hi, Diurnal Lep. Suppl. p. 26, pi. 3b, 
figs. 109, 110 (1878). 

Hewitson, (I.e., p.6,) describes both sexes of his M yrina, melisa, 
and later (p. 26) a specimen, sex not mentioned, of his cyara. Of 
these he figures only the " female " of melisa and the specimen of 
cyara. An examination of his Types, in the British Museum, proves his 
male of melisa to be in fact a male, his female of melisa a male, and 
his Type of cyara a female. 

The errors he committed have unfortunately been followed 
by most writers ever since, owing probably to the great rarity of 
the species. 

From the above it is evident that Hewitson' s " female " of 
melisa, being a male, cannot belong to that species. - We consider it 
in fact to be the male of cyara, the undersides agree so very closely. 
In addition to Hewitson's Types there are in the British Museum : 
one male from Bhutan taken by G. C. Dudgeon and a female from 
the Me Song forest, N. Siam. This latter was at first thought 
to be the female of melisa, of which two males were obtained in 
S. E. Siam, but it agrees so very closely with Hewitson's Type of 
cyara that it seems more probable that it belongs to that species, 
especially as the two localities, that of melisa and that of cyara, are 
some 500 miles apart and separated by the central plain of Siam. 
The true female of melisa, therefore, still remains to be discovered, 
and the distribution of the two species is : cyara, N. E. India to N. 
Siam ; melisa, Lower Burma to S. E. Siam. 

HESPERIID^. 

HESPERIIN.E. 

22. Orthophaetus barroni, sp. no v. 

(Plate VI, figs. 10 and 11.) 

Capita zennara, Godfrey (nee Moore), Jouin. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 
ii, p. 141 (1916). 

<5. Upper side, both wings. — Uniformly dark brown, the veins 

VOL. IV, NO, 3, 1921. 



188 MESSRS. RILEY AND GODFREY ON 

rather darker, thickly sprinkled from base outwards, more particu- 
larly on hindwing, with long rich ochreous scales. Foreiving. — An 
irregular oblong translucent white spot across distal end of cell. 
Hindwing. — Immaculate. Underside both wings. — Uniformly dull 
grey -brown with a faint purplish tinge distally in some lights ; veins 
not more heavily marked. 

Palpi, head, except lateral^ where it is pure white, thorax, 
patagia and abdomen (anteriorly) richly ochreous. The centre of 
thorax and posterior part of abdomen are unfortunately denuded of 
scales in the Type specimen. Thorax and abdomen below of same 
colour as the wings; breast ochreous. Antennae dark brown, paler 
beneath. Only the hind pair of legs remain on the Type specimen ; 
these have two pairs of spurs and a long pencil of hairs on the 
tibiae, the latter arising right at the proximal end. 

No costal fold, outer margin slightly concave anteriorly. 

2. Upperside, both wings. — Uniformly dull dark brown with 
a decided dull purplish suffusion especially basally ; the veins darker. 
Forewing. — The translucent spot at cell-end much larger than in the 
male, and connected with an oblong spot above it not quite reaching 
costal margin, and a curved irregular band below it reaching to within 
lmm. of extremity of vein 1, the whole forming a broad transverse 
silvery band right across the wing, most deeply indented at and 
above origin of vein 4. Hindiving. — Traces of darker internervular 
rays are present in areas le to 5 ; abdominal area paler. Underside, 
both wings. — As above. Forewing. — The purplish suffusion more 
pronounced beyond transverse band and the inner margin paler. 
Hindiving. — All trace of darker internervular rays is absent. 

Antennae, head and palpi as in the male. Thorax and abdo- 
men throughout dark grey-brown, except for the pale grey extremity 
of the latter. 

Wings much fuller than in male, outer margin of forewing 
evenly convex. 

Length of forewing. — 6, 32 mm; 9, 34.5 mm. 

Length of inner margin (base to extremity of vein 1), d, 
20.5 mm.; §, 23.5 mm. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM- 189 

Length of outer margin (apex to extremity of vein 1), d, 
22 mm; 9, 21.5 mm. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 133, d, 28.4.14; 134,9, 20.4.14, Hup 
Bon, "S. E. Siam. t 

This species together with 0. plianeus Hewitson, (wrongly 
identified by Watson when setting up the genus ) and 0. omeia 
Leech, form a subsection of the genus Orthophaetus Watson, in which 
the males have no costal fold. The female bears a superficial re- 
semblance to the females of Casyapa corvus Felder and Capila 
zennara Mo5re, and had in fact been previously resorded (I. c.) from 
Siam as the latter. We name the species after Mr. P. A. R. Barron, 
of the Borneo Company, near whose bungalow in the Sriracha forest 
it was obtained. 

23. Hasora proxissima Elwes & Edwards. 
(Plate VI, fig. 9.) 

A short series of four males and one female of a species of 
Hasora taken at Nong Yai Boo, near Sriracha, S. E. Siam, in April 
1914 seem inseparable from the above species described from the 
Philippines (Mindoro). We rely on the figure and description for this 
identification as we have not seen an authentic specimen to compare 
ours with. 

Three of the males differ in having a faint pale spot on the 
underside of forewing in area 2 close against vein 3, a short distance 
from its origin. In all other respects they all agree exactly with the 
figure. 

The female, which does not seem to have been described so 
far, differs from the male, apart from the normal sexual differences 
in the shape of the wings, &c, only in having ochreous more or less 
translucent marks in areas 2 and 3 of forewing. The lower of these 
corresponds in position to the pale mark referred to in the male and 
is crescentic, anteriorly truncate ; the upper one is similar in shape, 
placed considerably beyond the other, the horns of the crescent cut 
oft* by the veins (3 and 4). The underside, apart from these markings, 
which are the same below, exactly resembles the male. 

Length of forewing. — 9, 24 mm. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



190 SOME UNDESCRIBED RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 

B. M. Type No. Rh. 135, 9, Nong Yai Boo, S. E. Siam, April 
1914. 

This species is most readily separable from H. vitta Butler, 
( chahroni Plotz) by the absence of the white subapical spot on 
the forewing, and the much greiter width of the white transverse 
band of the underside of the hindwing. Butler in his figure and 
description of H. vitta makes no mention of the presence of this 
minute subapical spot, and consequently Elwes failed to identify the 
sj)ecies with chabrona, but nevertheless his Type, which is in the 
British Museum, most obviously possesses it. A form of vitta, which 
may prove to be a distinct subspecies of it, also occurs in Siam but 
has not been obtained yet in sufficient numbers to enable us to 
judge whether the slight differences from typical vitta exhibited are 
constant or not. 



JUUKN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



Explanation of Plate IV. 



Fig. 1. Papilla laos, sp. nov., d. 

2. Mycalesis siamica, sp. nov., 6. 

3. „ 5. 

4. Ragadia critias, sp. nov., d\ 

5. Stichophtlialma cambodia editha, ssp. nov., d>. 



JOCRN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM, VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



Journ. Nat. Hist Soc. Siam, Vol. IV, 1921, PL IV. 








RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM 



Explanation of Plate V. 



Fig. 1. Penthema darlisa melema, ssp. no v., d. 

2. „ binghami mimetica, ssp. no v., <5. 

3. Cirrochroa chione, «p. no v., d. 

4. Neptis carlica meraca, ssp. nov., d. 

5. Euthalia monina grahami, ssp. nov., 3. 

6. „ „ „ 2 - 

7. Laxita telesia boulleti Fruhst., tf. 

8. Gerydus ancon siamensis Godfrey, 6. 
9 ?• 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. S1AM, VOL. IV, NO. 3. 1921. 



Journ. Nat Hist Soc. Slam, Vol. IV, 1921, PL V. 







A- ^V^ 








RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM. 



Explanation of Plate VI. 



Fig. 1. Allot inus posidion rehkia, ssp. nov., 6. 

2. s 

3. „ drumila grisea, ssp. nov., 9. 

4. Talicada metana, sp. nov., 9. 

5. .dbcmus urios, sp. nov., d\ 

6. Arhopala andamanica ignara, ssp. nov.. d\ 

7. ■ „ opalina Moore, 9 . 

8. „ di-spar, sp. nov., d. 

9. Hasora proxissima Elwes & Edwards^ 9. 

10. Orthophaetus barroni, sp. nov., c?. 

11. „ „ 9. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM, VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



Joum. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, Vol. IV, 1921, PL VI. 






RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM 



Explanation of Plate VII. 



Fig. 1. Thauria lathy i siamensis Rothschild, d. 

2. Terinos ter 'pander intermedia Godfrey, 6. 

4. Everes rileyi Godfrey, 6. 

5. „ „ „ 5. 

6. Hestia leuconoe siamensis Godfrey, 6. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM, VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, Vol. IV, 1921, PI. VII. 






% 





RHOPALOCERA FROM SIAM 



191 



A NEW RACE OF NUTMEG-PIGEON FROM PULO CONDORE 

By C. Boden Kloss, m.b.o.u., c.f.a.o.u. 

- During a second visit in December 1920 to Pulo Condore, off 
Cochin-China, Mr. W. J. F. Williamson's collector obtained two 
specimens of a Nutmeg-Pigeon which, though remarkably distinct, 
I propose to describe as a race of Myristicivora bicolor. It differs 
from the typical form in that, where that is cream-white, this is 
butter-yellow. 

I have satisfied myself by questioning the collector, who 
observed several living birds, that this tone is not produced by grease 
in the dead skin ; but that it is the natural colour of the bird. The 
skins are, in fact, utterly different in colour from grease-soaked 
skins of M. b. bicolor. 

t~ Myristicivora bicolor condorensis, subsp. nov. 

Like the typical race in arrangement of colours, but maize- 
yellow (Ridgway), where that is white or creamy white, except near 
the extremity of the outer tail-feathers where the yellow tends to be- 
come whitish. 

Specimens examined. Two males from Pulo Condore, collect- 
ed on 3 November, 1920, by Mr. W. J. F. Williamson's collector. 

Total length 395, 390*; tail 153, 152*; wing 225, 230*; 
tarsus 32, 31* ; bill from gape 33.5, 32* mm. 

" Iris dark, bill and feet plumbeous." 



*Type. 
JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM., VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



193 



A NEW NAME FOR THE FROG RANA PULLUS. 

By Malcolm. A. Smith, F. Z. S. 

- Mr. Herbert Robinson, Director of F. M. S. Museums, has 
pointed out to me that the name pullus, under which I recently- 
described a frog in the Journal of the Federated Malay States 
Museums, is preoccupied by that of Stoliczka. ( Journ. Asiatic Soc. 
Bengal, (2), xxxix (1870), p. 142). 

Another name is therefore required, and I take this from 
Tasan, the type locality, where the species appears to be common. 
Rana tasanae, nom. nov. 
Fana pullus, Smith, Journ. F. M. S. Museums, x (June 1921 ), 
p. 197, pi. 2, fig. 1. 

Type locality, Tasan, 25 miles S. W. of Chumpon, Peninsular 
Siam. 

Types in the British Museum of Natural History. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM., VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



195 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

No. I.— The Burmese House-Crow (Gorvus splendens insolens) at 

Petchaburi. 

A recent note by Mr. W. J. F. Williamson in this Journal 
(antea, p. 105), mentioned the reported occurrence of the Burmese 
House-Crow in Ratburi and Petchaburi. This was the testimony of 

various Siamese, who knew the bird as I-kae (^ iin j from its call, 

which differs from the call of the Jungle-Crow (Corvus coronoides 
andamanensis). Its size is also somewhat less and the neck 
slightly grayish, but the call is by far the chief distinction. Those 
who knew it concurred that it was rare and shy. 

After several attempts I have just succeeded in getting a 
specimen at Wat Phra Taht, Petchaburi, but it cost a number of 
cartridges, and in the end my collector gave up after obtaining this 
one, saying the birds were all too shy and he could not find others, 
though I had askei for three, to get both sexes. The last he shot 
fell in the Wat (Temple) grounds, and undoubtedly was picked up, 
though odl denied it. For it seems that the bird is esteemed as me- 
dicine (probably on account of the difficulty of procuring it), and it is 
not unlikely that some of the very priests who denied seeing it, had 
told one of their boys to gather it up, too rare and good a chance to 
lose. It is kept till high, then pickled in spirits, or else split whole 
and roasted over the fire, and thus makes Ya-mu f<y-| mj J, a medi- 
cine which is valuable (?) for Sang (tw), a term which may include 
almost any unidentified wasting child's disease. 

The measurements of the bird (a female, not nesting, possibly 
a just-adult nestling of this year, as there are a few pin feathers on 
the neck, and one of the wing primaries on either side is also un- 
developed) are as follows: — Total length 14.5 inches, tail 5.5, bill 
1.5, spread of wings 24, tarsus 1.5 — as against those of the Jungle- 
Crow (Corvus c. andamanensis) : — Total length 20 inches, tail 7, 
bill 2.5, spread 29 and tarsus 2.5. The color is black, except the 
slightly gray neck. 

The place of nesting I have not ascertained, though the bird 
is said to occur in Petchaburi in varying numbers throughout the year. 

Lucius C. Bulkley, m.d. 
Petchaburi, 25th August, 1921. 

[Dr. Bulkley's measurements indicate a small bird, not full 
grown. If the breeding season in Siam is the same as in Burma 
(middle of March to beginning of rains — vide Faun. Brit. India, Birds, 
i, p. 22), an example shot in August might very well be sub-adult. 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



196 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

Dr. Bulkley -went on leave, immediately after writing this note, and 
we understand that he took the specimen with him, for presentation 
to one of the American Museums. 

It may be added that Mr. Williamson sent his collector to 
Petchaburi in October (two months after Dr. Bulkley obtained his 
bird), with express instructions to proceed to Wat Phra Taht, or 
elsewhere in the town, for the purpose of procuring specimens of this 
crow, but the man reports there were none to be seen. — Eds.]. 

- No. II —The Giant Ibis (Thaumatibis gigantea) in Cambodia. 

In December 1918. Dr. Malcolm Smith and I sent a couple of 
collectors to Koli Kong (Koh= island), and the adjacent Cambodian 
coast in about Lat 11° N., slightly below the point where the extreme 
south-east of Siain joins French Indo-Chinese territory. 

The birds obtained on that trip have not yet been critically 
examined, but the fact should be recorded that, among them, is a 
pair of the still rare Ibis, T. gigantea, of which six specimens now 
appear to be known. 

Oustalet's type came from Cochin-China [Ibis gigantea, Oust., 
Bull. Soc. Philom. (7) I, (1877), p. 25], while the next two examples 
were obtained in Trang, Peninsular Siam, by Dr. W. L. Abbott, and 
Messrs. Robinson and Kloss, respectively (Ibis, 1911, p. 17), and the 
fourth by Mr. K. G. Gairdnor in the Circle of Ratburi, on the 
western side of central Siam [Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam. II (1916), 
p. 71]. The two now recorded are practically topo-types of Oustalet's 
bird, and are the first which have been secured otherwise than as 
isolated examples. 

The collector who shot them reported, on his return, that he 
had seen at least one other specimen, so it is to be hojoed that, at all 
events in some part of its habitat, the bird is not quite so rare as it 
has hitherto been believed to be. 

6 , 9. Kampong Sum Bon, near Sre Umbel, coast of Cam- 
bodia, 24 December, 1918. 

Colours of soft parts (Native collector). Iris red, legs red. 

Measurements. Total length (Native collector), 6 1065, 9 
1020 mm. Other measurements (dried skin). Bill from gape, <$ 
223, 9 198. Wing, 6 554, 9 525. Tarsus, 6 113, 9 105 mm. 

W. J. F. Williamson. 
Bangkok, October, 1921. 

No. III.— Earth Snake eating a Grass Snake. 

An instance of the common Grass Snake (Natrix piscator) 
falling a victim to the apparently quiet and inoffensive Earth Snake 
(Cylindrophis rwfus), came recently under my notice while out 
after snipe. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 197 

The Grass Snake first attracted my attention as it lay on 
the side of a bund in the padi field, apparently lifeless. On going 
to pick it up, however, I found that it was not dead, but that it was 
firmly -caught by the neck by something, and partly pulled into a 
hole in the bank, so that its head was doubled back on its body. So 
tightly was it held that it required considerable force to extract it, 
and in doing so revealed the head and neck of an Earth Snake, with 
its jaws firmly closed on the Grass Snake's neck. On trying to pull 
the Earth Snake out further, it relinquished its hold and retreated 
deeply into the bank, from where I was unable to recover it. From 
the view I obtained I gathered it to be about the same size as its 
victim. Presumably it was in residence in the hole in the bank, and 
the Grass Snake, entering in search of food, had been suddenly 
surprised and seized in the manner described. In no other way can 
I account for such a snake as Natrix piscator, well known for its 
active habits and aggressive nature, being overcome by another 
snake no larger than itself. In due course the Earth Snake would 
have worked its jaws along to its victim's head and then swallowed it. 

Of the voracious habits of Cylindrophis rufus I have seen 
many instances. This snake feeds, as far as I know, upon eels and 
other snakes, and several specimens that have been sent me have 
disgorged meals, nearly as thick as, and several inches longer than, 
themselves. 

Both snakes are common in Bangkok and throughout Siam 
in the lowland country. C. rufus is a nocturnal species, and in 
Bangkok, may be often seen lying in the road where it has been 
killed. It is easily recognised by its thick, purplish-brown body, 
with incomplete whitish bands. The tail is very short and pink 
underneath. It does not bite when captured, but has a curious habit 
of arching its tail over its back in the manner of a scorpion, showing 
the pink under surface, and looking most aggressive. The tail is 
blunt and of about the same thickness as the head, and to the Siamese 
this creature is often known as the two-headed snake. It is reputed 
to be very dangerous. N. piscator is the common Grass Snake of 
the padi fields. When caught it bites fiercely, but with its small 
teeth can not do much damage. 

Malcolm Smith. 

Bangkok, Oct. 20th 1921. 

No. IV.— Curious Fishing; Ceremony on the Upper Mekong. 

Recently while on tour in the north of Siam, I came across 
an interesting ceremony amoung the Lao people at Wieng Kuk, near 
Vien Chan on the Upper Mekong. 

From the 13th increase of the moon to the 15th in February 

VOL. IV, NO. 4 3, 1921. 



198 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

every year, people come from far and near to witness the catching 
of a huge (?) fish locally designated Pla Biik (daifin). Interference 

with the creature at any other time of the year, is said to bring 
terrible misfortune upon the offender. 

The iish are stated to frequent the whole length of the 
Mekong river up to this point, as well as being found at the mouth. 
They are about. 12 ft. in length, and 8 to 10 ft. in girth, have smooth 
black skins and are scaleless. Their heads are blunt and toothless. 
The females have a pair of mammae. When caught their stomachs 
are never found to contain anything but stones. 

The fish are seen rising and ascending the river, when their 
capture, is attempted. Only particular, and specially skilled jDeople, 
are allowed to indulge in this business. Boats proceed up stream 
with huge seine nets, and drop them so that they extend to a great 
depth, across a narrow defile of the river above where the fish have 
been seen. These as they ascend charge into the nets and are caught 
by their gills. It is said that they make no attempt to turn and go 
down stream. The fishermen come up and guide them ashore, where 
they are tethered in the water by their- gills until sold. Great care 
and skill has to be exercised in catching the fish when enmeshed, as 
the overturning of a boat is apt to lead to fatal results, owing to 
the strong undercurrent. 

A curious part of the ceremony is that, on peril of the greatest 
misfortune, those engaged must keep up a continual flow of abuse. 

The fish is said to be very powerful, and it is alleged that 
purchasers living upstream utilise; them to tow their boats home. The 
live fish sells for Tcs. 200—240. The Lao chief of Vien Chan collects 
a fee of Tcs. 10 per fish caught, for charges incurred in propitiating the 
guardian spirit of the river. The retail price is Tic. 1 per catty. The 
flesh is much prized, and is eagerly consumed by the Laos, who be- 
lieve it brings good luck and success in trading. 

As I have not myself seen the creature, I should be glad of 
any further information readers of this Journal may have, or any 
suiTirestion as to the nature of this so-called fish. 

A. H. Duke. 
October, 1920. 



JOUKN. NAT. HIST. SOU. SUM. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



7th Annual General Meeting. 

This was held on the 25th of February 1920, and was 
attended by 18 members and 2 guests. 

The report and accounts for 1919, showing a membership of 
59, and a balauce in hand of Tcs. 301, were accepted and passed. 

The election of officers for the year 1920 resulted as 
follows : — President, Mr. W. J. F. Williamson ; Vice President, Dr. 
Malcolm Smith ; Hon. Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. C. L. Ground- 
water ; and a committee consisting of the above three members and 
Messrs. S. G. Lambert, ^L. Brewitt-Taylor, and C. E. W. Hogge. 
Owing to the pending absence of Dr. Smith on leave, Mr. Williamson 
agreed to carry on the work of editing the journal with Mr. Brewitt- 
Taylor as co-editor. 

The President informed the members that a sum of f 1,500 or 
Tcs. 1,951.22 had been received from the F. M. S. Museums, as their 
contribution to the cost of publication of a series of papers on the 
Vertebrates of Peninsular Siam in the Society's Journal. 

The business part of the meeting having been concluded, Mr. 
Williamson exhibited a series of the Woodpeckers and Barbets of 
Siam. Mr. Herbert exhibited some of the mammals collected by 
him in the past and described in a previous number of the Society's 
Journal by Mr. Boden Kloss. (Vol. II., No. 1). He also showed 
specimens of the wings and tails of the Fantail and Pintail snipe, 
showing the changes due to moult which take place when the birds 
arrive in this country. Dr. Smith exhibited some interesting snakes 
and lizards. 

2nd Ordinary General Meeting, 1920. 

The 18th Ordinary General Meeting was held on December 
10th, 1920, at the offices of the Bangkok Times. Mr. Williamson 
was in the chair. There were present 7 members and 11 guests. 

The minutes of the last ordinary general meeting were read 
and confirmed. Mr. Williamson then exhibited a collection of zoolog- 
ical specimens obtained at Pulo Condore during the previous 
month, by collectors sent there jointly by Mr. C. Bcden Kloss and 
himself. This expedition he stated was the second in which he had 
had a part, the previous one having been sent there by Dr. Malcolm 
Smith and himself in the autumn of 1919. The results of the first 
were being described in the Journal then in course of issue, and they 
had been of sufficient interest to justify a second and longer 
expedition. 

After briefly describing the geographical position of the 
group to which the larger island gives its name, and mentioning the 
famous travellers of the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries who 
had visited the island, Mr. Williamson proceeded to deal with the 
specimens exhibited at the meeting. These included examples of 

VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



200 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

125 mammals collected, comprising 9 species, and 160 specimens of 
birds, comprising 42 species. The total number of species of birds 
obtained in 1919 and 1920 was 47. 

The reptilian and batrachian collection obtained was not 
large, but comprised two new species of Ground Gecko. These were 
being described b}' Dr. Malcolm Smith in the coming number of the 
Journal. 

Of butterflies, 226 specimens were obtained, comprising 34 
species, and 13 dragon-flies, comprising 6 species. 

It thus appeared that the expedition had been quite a suc- 
cessful one. 

8th Annual General Meeting. 

This was held at the Bangkok Times office on 23rd February 
1921, and was attended by 16 members and 8 guests. The minutes 
of the previous annual general meeting were read and confirmed. 

The report showed an increase of members during the year 
from 59 to 63, which included the addition to the honorary members 
of Major J. C. Moulton, who had recently been appointed to the po!*t 
of Director of the Raffles Museum, Singapore. Major Moulton had 
previously held the position of Curator of the Sarawak Museum, and 
was well known for his contributions on entomological subjects. 

The accounts, showing a balance in hand of Tcs. 523.40, were 
passed. Mr. W. J. F. Williamson was re-elected President, Dr. 
Malcolm Smith, Vice President, and Mr. S. H. Cole, Hon. Secretary 
and Treasurer. Messrs. E. J. Godfrey, S. G. Lambert and C. E. W. 
Hogge were elected on the committee. Messrs. Smith and Williamson 
were elected Editors of the Journal. 

In reporting on the work of the Society during the past year, 
the Chairman stated that it had suffered considerably owing to the 
absence of Dr. Smith and Mr. Godfrey on leave, the departure of 
Mr. Herbert permanently from Siam, and his own absence from 
Bangkok during three months. 

He then referred to the expedition to the Upper Mekong 
under Police-Major Day which lefc via Utaradit in December 1919. 
This was financed by Doctor Smith, Mr. Herbert, Messrs. Robinson 
and Kloss, Major Eraser, Mr. Godfrey, Mr. Cable and himself, with 
the object of collecting zoological specimens along the valley of the 
Mekong between Pak Lai and Ubon, returning to Bangkok via Korat. 
The trip occupied some 4 months, but owing to the hurried manner 
in which it was carried out had proved far from successful. 

An exhibition of specimens then took place. Mr. Th. H. Lyle 
exhibited the skin and skull of a Binturong shot in Chiengmai ; Mr. 
Williamson exhibited the birds obtained by his collector on the 
Mekong valley trip ; Mrs. Gittins and Mr. Godfrey exhibited some 
butterflies collected in Bangkok. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



201 



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VOL. IV, NO. 3, 1921. 



202 



LIST OF MEMBERS ON 31ST OCTOBER, 1921. 



Aagaard, C. J. 
Ardron, G. H. 
Ayer, Dr. Ira 
Bain, W. 
Barnes, Dr. M. E. 
Barron, P. A. R. 
Basil-Edwardes, S. 
Braham, N. C. 
Brewitt-Taylor, L. 
Bulkley, Dr. L. C. 
Buszard, Mrs. M. F. 
Cable, J. A. 
Cambiaso, Count F. 
Chappie, E. 
Churchill, A. C. 
Cole, S. H. 
Collins, Mrs. D. J. 
Eastwood, E. B. 
Gairdner, K. G., C.M.Z.S. 
Gayetti, Dr. C. 
Gittins, Mrs. H. 
Godfrey, E. J., B.sc, f.e.s. 
Gore-Browne, H. 
Gould, A.N. 
Groundwater, C. L. 
Groves, Mrs. S. P. 
Grut, W. L. 
Healey, E. 

Herbert, E. G., C.M.Z.S. 
Hjartved, J. A. 



Hogge, C. E. W. 

Ingiis, C. M. 

Jagd, H. 

Joynson, H. W. 

Ladell, W. R. S. 

Lambert, S. G. 

Lloyd, Mrs. W. F. 

Lyle, Mrs. T. H. 

Mackenzie, J. M. D. 

McBeth, J. J. 

Nystrom, F. 

Ogilvie, A. W. 

Phongse Sanitwongse, Mom Luang 

Pickford, H. L. 

Purves, S. S. B., M.c. 

Queripel, A. L. 

Rae, W. W. 

Raggi, J. G. 

Robert, Dr. L. 

Seidenfaden, Major E. 

Slack, T. A. 

Smith, E. Wyon 

Smith, Dr. M. A., f.z.s. 

Spencer, F. D. 

Spigno, A. B. 

Trotter, E. W. 

Weston, C. M. 

Williamson, W. J. F., C.M.G., 

F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Winit Wanadorn, Luang 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

H. R. H. The Prince of Chumpon. 

Baker, E. C. Stuart, f.z.s., m.b.o.u. Gyldenstolpe, Count Nils, B. A. 

Robinson, H. G, c.m.z.s., m.b.o.u. 

Kloss, C. Boden, F.R.G.S., f.z.s., m.b.o.u. 

Moulton, Major J. C, M.A., B.Sc. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Natural History Society of Siam. 



Vol. IV., No. 4. 



Date of publication, July 25, 1922. 



EDITED BY 
Malcolm A. Smith and E. J. Godfrey. 



Price to Members, 
Price to Non-Members, 



.Tcs. 2.50 
Tcs. 5.00 



Agents -.— H. F. & G. WITHERBY, 326 High Holborn, London. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Notes on Reptiles and Batrachians from Siam and 
Indo-Ciiina. No. 1. By Malcolm A. Smith, F.Z.S. 
With Plate 8 ... ... ... ... 203 

The Frogs Allied to Kana Dorle. By Malcolm A. 

Smith, F.Z.S. With Plate 9 ... ... ... 215 

The Frogs Allied to Ran a Dori.<e. Addendum. By Malcolm 

A. Smith, f.z.s. With a text figure ... ... 227 

A Collection of Dragonfli.es from Bangkok. By Major 

F. C. Fraser, I.MS. With Plate 10 ... ... 231 

Miscellaneous Notes: — 

I. — Note on the Malay Sambar (Vermes unicolor 

equinun). By K. G. Gairdner ... ... 239 

II.— Intelligence of Otters By Malcolm Smith ... 239 

III. — The Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) in Siam. 

By C. J. Aagaard ... ... ... 240 

VI. — The Burmese House Crow (Gorvus xplendens 

in soldi.-;). By K. G. Gairdner ... ... 240 

V.— Pinus Merkusii. By K. G. Gairdner ... 241 

Review. "The Snakes of Ceylon" ... ... 242 

Proceedings of the Society ... ... ... 243 

Publications in the Library of the Natural History 

Society of Siam ... ... ... ... 247 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. VOL. IV. PLATE 8. 






1. RANA AENEA. 2. NATRIX GROUNDWATER!. 



THE 

JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Natural History Society of Siam. 

Volume IV. Bangkok. Number 4. 

NOTES ON REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS FROM SIAM AND 
INDO-CHINA, (No. 1). 

By Malcolm A. Smith, f. z. s. 

With plate 8. 

Testudo impressa = Testudo latinuchalis. 

Natrix nigrocinctus = Tropidonotus eisenhoferi. 

Natrix groundwateri, sp. nov. 

HolarcJius longicauda = Simotes longicauda joynsoni. 

Lygosoma vittigerum kronfanum, ssp. nov. 

Bana aenea, sp nov. 

Bana nigrovittata = Bana mortenseni. 

MicroJiyla butleri = Microhyla latastii. 
The present article contains descriptions of three new forms : — 
(1) A new snake (Natrix groundwateri) from the extreme south of 
Siam, obtained by the Robinson and Kloss expedition to that part of 
the country in 1919, (2) a new race of the small but handsome 
scink, Lygosoma vittigerum, obtained by myself on the Langbian 
plateau, S. Annam, in 1918, and (3) a new frog, Rana aenea, found 
by my native collector when accompanying Messrs. Carthew and 
Godfrey on a trip to the extreme north of Siam early in 1921. 

Judging by the results of expeditions which have been under- 
taken in Siam during the last few years, it would seem as if the 
herpetological survey of the country was nearing completion. New 
forms will still no doubt be found upon the higher hills, particularly 
in the Nakon Sritamarat range and along the Burma frontier, where 
many peaks still remain unexplored. The genus Philautus, in par- 
ticular, should repay investigation. The small frogs included under 
this group confine themselves almost entirely to mountain streams, 
and in Siam, are seldom found below the 700 metre level. Their 
diminutive size, protective colouration and nocturnal habits, make 
them extremely difficult to find, and unless a definite search is made 
for them they are seldom seen. They arc best found by hunting for 



204 DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 

them at night with a lamp, when their shrill cries reveal their pre- 
sence among the foliage in which they live, and they can be easily 
tracked down and caught. 

I have also included in the paper certain changes in nomen- 
clature which I believe to be correct. These conclusions have been 
reached only after the study of a considerable amount of material, in 
most cases of living specimens as well as of preserved ones. 

Testudo impressa Giinther. 

Geoemyda impressa, Giinther, P. Z. S. 1882, p. 343, figs. 1-3. 
Testudo emys, Boulenger, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 1893, (2) xiii, 

p. 312. 
Geoemyda latinuchalis, Vaillant, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, 1894; 

(8) vi., p. 68 ; id., Mocquarcl, Rev.' Colon., Kept. Indo- chine, 

1907, p. 10. 
Testudo pseudemys, Bouleng., Fascic. Malay., Zoo!., 1903, i. p. 144. 

pi. ix, and text fig. 1. (skull) ; Annandale, Journ. Proc. Asint, 

Soc. Bengal, 1906, (2) ii. p. 204. 
Testudo latinuchalis, Siebenr. Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. 1909, x, p. 520; 

Bouleng., Fauna Malay Penin., Kept. 1912, p. 15. 

Testudo impressa was described by Giinther from a single 
shell received from Siam. It was subsequently referred by Boulenger 
to Testudo emys Schleg. & Mull., and of late appears to have been 
forgotten. 

While working with Mr. Boulenger in the British Museum 
prior to his retirement, we took the opportunity of examining this 
shell, and of comparing it with a series of tortoises that I had col- 
lected in Siam. There was no doubt whatever that it was not 
T. emys at all, but was identical with the species now recognized 
as Testudo latinuchalis (Vaillant). 

Boulenger's separation of T. emys from T, latinuchalis (Faun. 
Malay Penin., p. 14) on the relative proportions of the vertebral shields 
is not a sufficient one, owing to the variations in size which are 
found in different individuals. In several other characters, how- 
ever, the two are so distinct that there can be no doubt as to their 
specific identities. 

Confirmation is also to be found in the cranial characters, 
the skull of one of my specimens of T. latinucludis differing from 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS FROM SIAM AND INDO-CHINA. 205 

that of T. emys, but agreeing well with that of T. pseu'demys, a 
species now recognised as T. latinuchalis* 

Testudo impressa Glinther must therefore be revived, and 
T. latinuchalis placed under it. Apart from the skull, this species 
can be distinguished from T. emys by the following characters : — 



T. impressa. 
Pectoral shields always in contact. 
Margins of the carapace usually strongly 

reverted and serrated in the adult. 
Shell yellowish or pale brown, rich dark 

brown or black at the margins of the 

shields. \ 
Maximum length of shell in a straight 

line 270 mm. 



T. emys. 
Pectoral shields usually widely separated. 
Margins of the carapace not usually strong- 
ly reverted or serrated in the adult. 
Shell dark horn to blackish. 



Maximum length 520 mm. 



Natrix groundwater^ sp. nov. 

Plate 8, fig. 2. 

Type d", Author's No. 3354, collected by Messrs. Robinson 
and Kloss at Tasan, 40 kilometres S. W. of Chumpon, Peninsular 
Siam, in March, 1919. 

Description of the type. Maxillary teeth 30,J the last not 
abruptly enlarged ; rostral much broader than deep ; internasals 
narrowed anteriorly, as long as the prae-frontals ; frontal once and a 
quarter as long as broad, as long as its distance from the end of the 
snout, much shorter than the parietals ; loreal twice as long as high ; 
two prae- and two or three post-oculars ; temporals 1 + 2 ; 9 supra- 
labials, 4th to 6th touching the eye ; 5 inf ralabials in contact with 
the anterior chin-shields, which are as long as the posterior. 

Scales in 19 rows anteriorly, reducing to 17 at mid-body, and 
so continued to the vent, smooth anteriorly, feebly keeled posteriorly. 
Ventrals 147 ; anal 1 ; subcaudals 120. 

*. For a comparison of T. emys, T. pseudemys and T. impressa, 
see Boulenger in Fasciculi Ma'ayenses, (1) Zool., p. 145 et seq. 

t. A specimen from Dalat, S. Annam has handsome dark brown 
rays upon the plastron. 

+ It is unfortunate that only the type specimen is sufficiently adult 
to allow of a satisfactory examination of the teeth, and in this specimen 
also they are obscured by damage. It appears, however, to belong 
to Natrix. 

VOL. IV, NO, 4, 1922. 



206 DR MALCOLM SMITH ON 

Total length 450 mm ; tail 165. 

Black above with a dor so-lateral chain of yellow spots ; outer 
two rows of scales with yellow centres; labials yellow with black 
sutures, and a yellow streak from the angle of the mouth on to the 
nape. Below yellowish, with a black spot at the outer edge of each 
ventral and subcaudal shield. 

Variation. Four others (juveniles) taken in the same 
locality show no variation from the type specimen, except in the 
number of the ventral and caudal scutes, and in the colour of the 
head, which is light brown above with yellow vermiculations. 

Natrix groundwateri is named after Mr. C. L. Ground- 
water, to whom I have been indebted on many occasions for 
illustrations which have appeared in this Journal. It is allied to 
N. inas (Laidlaw) from the hills of Perak and Peninsular Siam. 

Measurements in mm. 



Author's No. 


Total length. 


Tail. 


Ventrals. 


Caudals. 


3354 (type) 


450 


165 


147 


120 


3355 


245 


85 


154 


120 


3356 


185 


75 


154 


126? 


3357 


180 


70 


151 


? 



4437 230 85 151 ? 

Type presented to the British Museum. Paratypes in my 
own collection. 

The illustration is twice the natural size. 

Natrix nigrocinctus (Blyth). 

Tropidonotus nigrocinctus, Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1856, 

xxiv., p. 717; Bouleng., Cat. Sn. B. M., 1893, i, p 255; 

Smith, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 1915, i, p. 244; id., ibid., 

1916, ii. p. 159. 
Tropidonotus eisenhoferi, Gyldenstolpe, Iv. Sv. Vet. Akad. Hand., 

1916, Band 55, No. 3. p. 11, text fig. 

A series of 19 examples of this snake from Siam shews it to 
be a very variable species. The collection includes examples from 
three well separated localities — from northern Siam nearest to the 
type locality (Pegu), from Peninsular Siam and from S. E. Siam* 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS FROM SIAM AND INDOCHINA- 207 



Each region appears to have its own variation, which, with the 
material now available, may be chronicled as follows : — 

NORTHERN SlAM. 

1 praeocular; ventrals 161-168; subcaudals 85-96. 

Adult with distinct black cross bands ; posterior 2/3 of belly 
and tail thickly powdered with grey, or tail below entirely dark 
grey. (10 specimens). 

Details of specimens of N. nigrocinctus. 



No. 


Sex. 


Ttl. 


Tail 


Scales 


Vent. 


Caud. 


Locality. 


3091 


9 


740 


205 


19.17 


166 


93 


Me Wang, N. Siam. 


3094 


9 


875 


155 ? 


M ,, 


166 


44? 


,, 


3092 


9 






,, .> 


161 


24? 


,, 


3095 




400 


105 


,, >. 


163 


90 


M M 


3093 


9 


880 


250 


>> >, 


165 


96 


J ) . ) J 


3090 


6 


800 


220 


» » 


161 


85 


" 


1686 


c? 


495 


135 


,, ,, 


165 


92 


., 


3101 


6 


370 


100 


>> n 


164 


96 


ii it 


2912 


9 


yg- 




)1 ) » 


168 


92 


Me Nga, , , 


3096 


6 


,, 




,, ,, 


165 


96 


,, 


T. eisenhoferi. 


950 


228 


>i .. 


160 


73 


M. Fang, ,, 


*7481 


9 






„ ,, 


167 


86 


Pegu (Burma) . 


4105 


9 


Hf. gr. 




», .; 


157 


78 


Tasan, P. Siam. 


4104 




Yg- 




,", ,, 


152 


82 


>> 


3238 


9 


590 


155 


J » > ) 


153 


77 


Tapli, 


1684 


9 


Yg- 




>, .. 


150 


72 


Chumpon. ,, 


1685 


9 


.. 




,. ,, 


153 


79 


Klong Bang Lai, ,, 


1883 


9 


Hf. Gr. 




,, ,, 


164 


74 


Hup Bon, S. E. Siam. 


1682 


9 


635 


120 


,. >, 


160 


53? 


Klong Yai, ,, 


1681 


6 


825 


210 


» 1 ) » 


156 


84 


j j » * 


1713 


9 


840 


185 ,, „ 


159 


65? 


Khao Sabab, ,, 



* Indian Museum number, 
pared with my series. 



One of the types which I have com- 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



208 dr. malcolm smith on 

Peninsular Siam. 

1 praeocular; ventrals 150-157; subcaudals 72-82. 
Colour as above. (5 specimens). 

S. E. Siam. 

2 praeoculars; ventrals 156-164; subcaudals 74-84. 

Adult with cross bands hardly distinct or absent. Posterior 
1/3 of belly and tail sparingly powdered grey. (4 specimens). 

Other variations. The postoculars may be 3 or 4 in number; 
the temporals are usually 2 + 2, but in one example (No. 3090) are 
1 + 2 ; 9 supralabials is the rule, but in two examples there are 8 
on one side ; the outer row of scales is variable as regards the strength 
of the keeling, which may be entirely absent. 

I have no hesitation in placing under this species Gylden- 
stolpe's Tropidonotus eisenhoferi from N. Siam. Its separation 
from Natrix nigrocinctus upon 4 postocular shields and an outer- 
most row of smooth . body scales, is untenable with the series 
now shewn. 

Holarchus longicauda (Boulenger). 

Simotes longicauda, Bouleng,, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1903, (7) 

xii, p. 350. 
Simotes longicauda joynsoni, Smith, Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, 

1917, ii, p. 276. 

Last year when home on leave I was able to compare my 
S. I. joynsoni with Boulenger's type of longicauda in the British 
Museum. The difference in colouration between them was far less 
than I had gathered from the description, so much so that mine can 
no longer be recognised as a form apart. 

Since Mr. Joynson obtained his specimens, I have examined 
four more from Siam, two from the Me Wang forest and two from 
Pak Jong in the Dong Rek mountains. They show well the great 
variability of the species with regard to colouration and markings. 

Lygosoma vittigerum kronfanum,* subsp. nov. 

Type, Author's No. 2417, collected at Daban, Langbian 
plateau, S. Annam, in March 1918. 

* Named after the Kronfa river on the banks of which the specimens 
were obtained. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS FROM SIAM AND INDO-CHINA. 209 

Total length 93 mm., head and body 34. Differs from the 
typical form described by Boulenger (Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, 1895, 
(2) xiv. p. 615) in the greater average number of scales round the 
body, 28-32, in the average shorter legs, the hind limb reaching only 
to the digits or the elbow of the adpressed fore-limb, in the pre- 
frontal shields forming a broad suture, and in having 5 well-defined 
light stripes, instead of a single vertebral one. 

Six specimens examined, all from the type locality, shew the 
very distinctive colouration of this new race, which is as follows : — 

Black above, with 5 greenish- white dorsal stripes, namely, a 
vertebral one from the tip of the nose to the root of the tail, a dorso- 
lateral pair from the upper eyelid to above the thigh, and a lateral 
pair from the upper lip to the groin, the black edging to the latter 
being less clearly defined than in the others. Throat and belly 
greenish- white ; tail light brownish with black dots along the sides. 

I have not compared my specimens with any of the typical 
form from the Malay Archipelago, but have done so with a good 
series from Siam and the Malay Peninsula. 

Indications of this multiplication of the dorsal stripe are 
shown in some of my Siamese examples from as far south as Hat 
Sanuk (Koh Lak, Lat. 12° N.), the dorso-lateral pair being present, 
but with tli'. dark edging outside indistinct, and that only in the 
anterior part of the body. 

One juvenile from the north of Siam (No. 3169) has 3 well 
marked light stripes throughout the whole length of the body ; and 
further collections from this region may establish a race with 3 light 
stripes only. 

Another juvenile from Chet Ton (N. Siam), on the border of 
French Laos, is intermediate between this form and the one from 
Annam. 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



210 



DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 





Detai 


Is of I 


. vittigerum I 


cronfanum. 










Type. 


















No. 


2417 


2418 


2453 


2454 


2455 


2456 








Scales round body . . 


30 


32 


30 


28 


28 


30 








Leg reaches the 


elbow 


hand 


wrist 


hand 


hand 


elbow 








Locality 


Daban 


Daban 


Daban 


Daban 


Daban 


Daban 










Other Specimens. 


No. 


5909 


3361 


4514 


2370 


2371 


2373 


2372 


3169 


5529 


Scales 


30 


28 


28 


28 


30 


28 


32 


30 


30 


Leg reaches the 


elbow 


elbow 




axil 


axil 


elbow 


axil 


elbow 


elbow 




3 


3 


3 


3 

QQ 


S 


3 


j 


A 


rt 




c 


■z 


■* 5 






a 


ce 


e3 




Locality 


sx-3 


■Ji 


%*> 


„* 


M* 


Ih 


GO 


£FX 


ate 




i5H 
a 

3 

o 


a Ph 
m 

H 




CO 


'3 

CO 


o 


<D 


£* 
o 
S 





Iii addition to the specimens here enumerated, two others 
only appear to be recorded from the Asiatic mainland, one from 
Ginting Bidai, and a second from Gunong Tahan in the Malay 
Peninsula. In all the specimens (example from Ginting Bidai not 
examined) the praefrontals form a broad suture. 

The mainland form therefore appears to differ from the 
typical (archipelagic) one in the following particulars : — longer pro- 
portion of body, the distance from the snout to the fore-limb being 
once and one-sixth to once and one-third in distance from axil to 
groin, shorter limbs, praefrontals always in suture, and greater 
average number of scales round the body. 

Rana aenea, sp. now 

Plate 8, fig. 1. 
Type 2, collected on Doi Chang, N. Siain. at about 1500 
metres altitude, in May 1920; Author's No. 5821. 



JOUKN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS FROM SIAM AND INDO-CHINA. 211 

Description of the type. Vomerine teeth in small, slightly 
oblique series, commencing from the level of the posterior borders of 
the choanae, equidistant from them and from each other. No bony 
prominences to the lower jaw. Head broader than long ; snout 
rounded, slightly projecting beyond the mouth, as long as the orbit; 
canthus rostralis distinct, loreal region oblique, slightly concave ; 
nostril equidistant from the eye and the tip of the snout ; distance 
between the nostrils twice the interorbital width, which is less than 
that of the upper eyelid. Tympanum indistinct, less than half the 
diameter of the eye, li times its distance from the latter. 

Fingers moderate, the tips simply swollen, 1st as long as 2nd, 
3rd shorter than the snout ; subarticular tubercles moderate. Hind 
limb long, the tibio-tarsal articulation reaching well beyond the 
snout; heels strongly overlapping when the limbs are folded at right 
angles to the body. Toes moderate, the tips dilated into small but 
very distinct discs, 2/3 webbed, nearly 3 phalanges of the fourth toe 
free ; no groove on the discs separating the upper from the lower 
surfaces; no tarsal fold ; subarticular tubercles moderate, inner meta- 
tarsal tubercle moderate, 3/5 the length of the inner toe ; no outer 
tubercle. 

Skin quite smooth; posterior half of upper eyelid warty; a 
glandular fold from the eye to the shoulder: a fine glandular dorso- 
lateral fold beginning behind the upper eyelid, converging towards 
its fellow on the shoulders and extending to the hip. 

Brownish or greyish-black above, the sides with small round- 
ed, jet-black spots; dorso-lateral fold indicated by a thin whitish 
line, edged outside with black on the forepart of the body ; supra- 
temporal fold with similar markings, the black band including the 
tympanum ; lips black with white spots, limbs with black crossbars. 
Below yellowish white, the throat finely speckled with black, the 
belly and limbs with larger black spots. 

Nasal bones large and widely separated. 

A second female (No. 5822) collected in the same locality 
differs in that the vomerine teeth are slightly more prominent, the 



VOL. IV, NO, 4, 1922. 



212 DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 

tympanum more distinct, and the dorsolateral fold present only half 
way down the back. 

Rani, aenea is nearest to R. palava/rwmsis Boulenger, from 
the Malay Archipelago. It differs from it in the smaller and less 
distinct tympanum, in the smaller digital discs and shorter 1st 
linger, in the convergence of the dorso-lateral folds and in 
colouration.* 

Type presented to the British Museum ; paratype in my own 
collection. 



Measurements in mm. 






Type. 


Paratype 


Snout to vent 


35 


38 


Length of head 


12.5 


14 


Width of head 


14.5 


15.5 


Snout 


6 


6.5 


Eye 


5 


5 


Interorbital width 


2.5 


3 


Tympanum 


2 


2 


Fore limb 


20 


22 


Hind limb 


65 


74 


Tibia 


22 


25 



Foot 20 22 

Rana nigrovittata (Blyth). 

liana nigrovittata, Bouleng., Rec. Ind. Mus., 1920, xx, p. 144; 

Smith, P. Z. S. 1921, p. 433. 
Rana mortenseni, Bouleng., Rec. Ind. Mus., 1920, xx, p. 135. 

In P. Z. S. 1921, I endeavoured to show that R. nigrovittata 

(Blyth) and R. Tnortenseni Boulenger were very closely related to 

each other. The chief point of distinction between them was, that 

while the male of the former had external vocal vesicles, that of the 

latter had internal. In many of my specimens of nigrovittata 

I had found a blackened patch of skin on either side of the throat at 

•Compared with two specimens from N. Borneo. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SUM. 



REPTILES AND .BATRACHIANS FROM SIAM AND INDO-CHINA. 213 

the angle of the jaw, with fine longitudinal folds and an alteration 
in the character of the skin at that point. This did not appear in 
R. mortenseni. 

Since then I have examined a further large series (over 50 
examples) of nigrovittata from various parts of Siam. The collection 
moreover includes many full grown males, considerably larger than 
any previously available for examination, and quite as large as the 
R. mortenseni from Koh Chang. 

In all the specimens of nigrovittata from Peninsular Siam 
(largest not over 55 mm. from snout to vent), and in most of those 
of equal size from N. and N. E. Siam, this condition of external vocal 
vesicles is evident, but in the larger specimens (65 - 70 mm.) the 
pigmentation has disappeared, and the skin has resumed its normal 
colour. The folds, however, still remain ; they are more .strongly 
marked in some than in others. 

I have never seen any immature males of R. mortenseni ; and 
in the few adults I have examined the skin of the throat appears 
unchanged. 

Tadpoles obtained on Koh Chang, where mortenseni appears 
to be the only frog of this group in existence, do not differ from 
tadpoles of R. nigrovittata which I have obtained in other parts of 
Siam. 

The other points of distinction between the two species which 
I had relied on, namely, the slight difference in the finger tips and 
the longer leg, disappear with the larger amount of material 
examined. 

It would seem correct therefore, to unite mortenseni with 
nigrovittata, and, as regards the question of vocal sacs to describe 
the species as having internal or feebly developed external ones. 

Although my series from different parts of the country inter- 
grade completely with each other it is possible to correlate certain 
broad variations with geographical areas. 

(1) From Peninsular Siam. Presuming my specimens to 
be fully grown, this is the smallest form. Its length from snout to 
vent does not exceed 55 mm. The vocal vesicles are feebly developed 

VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922, 



214 REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS FROM SIAM AND INDO-CHINA. 

externally. In colouration the frogs from this region are of a 
richer brown than those found further north, and there is often a 
clearly defined broad dark band along the side of the body. Below 
whitish. (30 specimens examined). 

(2) From N. E. Siam and French Laos. A larger form, up 
to 70 mm. in length. Colouration greyer, and with the lateral band 
always broken up. Below often dappled or heavily powdered with 
grey. Vocal sacs feebly developed 'externally. (55 specimens 
examined). 

(3) Koh Chang (R. mortenseni). A large form, 70 mm. 
in length. Males with internal vocal sacs. (7 specimens examined). 

The types of Rana nigrovittata are in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta. Type locality Pegu. 

Microhyla butleri Boulenger. 

Microhyla butleri, Bouleng., Faun. Malay Penin., Kept., 1912, 

p. 261. 
Microhyla latastii, Bouleng., Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., July 1920, 

(2) vi, p. 106. 

I have examined the types and only known specimens of 
M. latastii in the British Museum, but cannot distinguish them from 
examples of M. butleri. 

This latter frog is widely distributed throughout Siam and 
Indo-China and I have examined numbers of specimens, both alive 
and dead. Its colouration is variable, but the dark, white-edged, 
3-tiered mark on the back is usually more or less distinguishable. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST SOC. SIAM. VOL. IV. PLATE 9. 






1- 






5a, 



5b 



I. Green, del. 



RANA DORI/E AND ITS ALLIES. 



Explanation of Plate 9. 



1. Rana dor ice Boulenger. 

2. Rana macrognathus macrognathus Boulenger. 

3. Rana macrognathus dabana, subsp. nov. 

4. Rana pileata Boulenger. 

5. Rana kohchangce, sp. nov. 

All the figures are of natural size and drawn from adult 
males. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. VOL. IV. NO. 4. 1922. 



215 



THE FROGS ALLIED TO RANA DORI/E. 

By Malcolm A. Smith, f.z.s. 

With plate 9. 

The frogs clustered round Rana dorkv Boulenger, form a 
t small and compact group, easily separated from all other species 
affiliated to them, but not so readily distinguished among themselves. 
The reason for this difficulty lies in the fact that it is only by means 
of the unusual development which occurs in the heads of the adult 
males that separation is possible. In bodily configuration, in the 
position of the vomerine teeth, in the character of the skin, the 
extent of webbing to the toes, and in colouration, they closely resem- 
ble each other, so nearly, that where females or juveniles are con- 
cerned, it is practically impossible to distinguish between them. 
Clearly they are all derived from a common ancestor, and they might 
still, perhaps, be regarded as racial forms of one species. The male 
characters, however, are now so distinct and constant, and the range 
of each form appears to be so well defined,* without intermediate ones 
occurring that, with one exception, it seems advisable to accord them 
specific rank. In several localities, moreover, two forms are to be 
found together. Further information concerning the phylogenetic 
relationships of this group, may be forthcoming when all its tadpoles 
are known. I have so far been able to obtain only two of them. In 
all essential characters these two do not differ from each other. 

The range of these frogs is- throughout Siam and the regions 
immediately bordering thereon. They are hill dwellers, inhabiting 
the mountain streams at all levels up to 1000 metres; and where 
found they are usually abundant. Excepting R. dorice, I have had 
the opportunity of seeing them all in their native haunts. 

With the large amount of material now in my possession it is 
possible to review this group in considerable detail. I recognize five 
forms. Three of these, R. dorice, R. macrognathus and R. pileata 
are already known. Two more are now added, R. kohchangce and a 
new race of R. macrognathus. 



* Except in the N. and N. E. where extensive collections have not 
yet been made. 

VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



216 DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 

Rana doricv, was the first to be described. It is the simplest 
of the group, in that the head of the male undergoes no special 
changes. In the other members the male head, as it arrives at 
maturity becomes markedly enlarged. This increase in size is par- 
ticularly noticeable on the lower surfaces of the mandibles, in the 
enlargement of the masseteric and depressor muscles, in the greater 
size of the tympanum, and in the increased width of the interorbital 
region. A bony tooth-like process also develops in the lower jaw on 
either side of the symphysis. 

In addition to these changes R. macrognathus and R. pileata 
develop a rounded swelling upon the top of the head, commencing at 
the interorbital region and extending backwards towards the occiput. 
In the former species this is to be seen simply as a swelling beneath 
the skin, in the latter it is flap-like, with a free margin behind and 
at the sides. It springs from the anterior extremities of the fronto- 
parietal bones, which are swollen and markedty pitted at this point. 
The swelling itself is composed of dense fibrous tissue, and is 
connected posteriorly to the skin above it by fibrous bands ; in the 
case of R. pileata it is closely adherent to the skin all round the free 
margin of the flap. 

The following key, based on adult male characters, will serve 
to distinguish the various forms : — * 

Head not enlarged, no tooth-like projections 

in the lower jaw R. dor ice Blgr. 

Head enlarged, lower jaw with tooth-like 

projections — _. 

No postorbital swelling R. kohchanga, nov. 

Postorbital swelling rounded, reaching to 
level of anterior border of tympanum, 
heels overlapping R. macrognathus macrognathus Blgr. 

Postorbital swelling elongate, reaching to 
level of posterior border of tympanum, 
heels not overlapping R. macrognathus dabana, nov. 

Postorbital swelling flap-like with a free edge R. pileata Blgr. 

* The allied R. plicatella Stoliczka, has also an occipital knob, but 
with its characteristic dorsal folds of skin and shorter web to the toes is 
quite distinct from the forms discussed here. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



THE FROGS ALLIED TO RANA DORI/E. 217 

Rana doriae Boulenger. 

Plate 9, fig. 1. 
Rana dorice, Bouleng., Ann. Mus. Genov., -1887, (2) v, p. 482, pi. Ill, 
fig. I ; idem, Fauna Malay Penin., Rept., 1912, p. 231 (in part) ; 
idem, Rec. Ind Mus., 1920, xx, p. 49 ; Anderson, Journ. Linn. 
Soc. Zool., 1889, (Fauna of Mergui), xxi, pp. 336, 349; An- 
nandale, Mem. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1917, vi, p. 133 (Andaman 
Ids). 

Type locality, Tenasserim. Types in the British Museum. 

Distribution. From the type locality southwards through 
Peninsular Siam to the Malay Peninsula. Undoubted records of this 
frog appear to be only from Tenasserim, from King and Elphinstone 
Islands (Mergui Archipelago), from Patiyu (P. Siam) and from the 
Andamans. Recently I have examined a specimen obtained at 
Kuala Teku, Gunong Tahan, Malay Peninsula, by the F. M. S. 
Museums collectors. The Robinson and Kloss expedition to Penin- 
sular Siam in 1919, found this frog fairly common at Victoria Point 
(S. Tenasserim), and at Mamoh, Tapli, and Tung Pran, and a good 
series was obtained from these localities. Anderson records it as 
common on .King and Elphinstone Islands. 

Colouration. All the examples I have examined from Tenas- 
serim and Siam are of the same colour, the predominating hue being 
olive brown with lighter and darker markings. The Gunong Tahan 
specimen is of a reddish-brown above, with small black markings ; 
throat and chest handsomely marbled with brown. 

Remarks. The tibio-tarsal articulation in some of my speci- 
mens from Peninsular Siam reaches the tip of the snout or beyond. 

I have examined two examples from the Andamans kindly 
sent me by Dr. Annandale (Indian Mus. Nos. 9381, 10436), and they 
differ from my specimens in the following particulars : — the more 
anterior position of the vomerine teeth, from the extreme anterior 
inner borders of the choanae, the more emarginate web to the toes, 
the shorter, more rounded, inner metatarsal tubercle, and in the 
presence of a small, but distinct, outer metatarsal tubercle. 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



218 



DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 



Measurements of Rana doricB in mm. 



Author's No. 


3581 


3582 


3589 


3592 


3585 


5922 


Sex 


d 


9 


6 


2 


$ 




Snout to vent 


44 


46 


42 


47 


47 


50 


Length of head 


16 


17 


15.5 


16.5 


17 


18 


Width of head 


18 


19 


17 


18 


18 


19 


Snout 


7.5 


8 


7 


7 


7 


8 


Eye .. 


5 


5 


4.5 


5 


5 


5 


Interorbital width 


4.5 


4.5 


4 


5 


4 


4 


Tympanum 


3 


3.5 


3.5 


3.5 


4 


4 


Fore limb 


24 


28 


23 


27 


27 


26 


Hind limb 


78 


86 


70 


83 


86 


80 


Tibia 


26 


27 


24 


28 


27 


27 


Foot .. 


25 


25 


22 


26 


26 


25 


Locality 


Tung Pran 


Tung Pran 






'o 


3 



Rana macrognathus macrognathus Boulenger. 

Plate 9, fig. 2. 
Rana macrognathus, Bouleng., Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 1917 (8) 
xx, p. 414; idem., Rec. Ind. Mus., 1920, xx, p. 51. 

The confusion between this species and R. dorkc which 
occurred in Boulenger's earlier descriptions (Ann. Mus. Genova, 1893, 
(2) xiii, p. 238, pi. viii ; and Fauna Malay Penin., Rept., 1912, p. 231), 
has now been cleared by that authority himself. 

The types are from the Karen Hills, Burma, and the species 
extends southwards as far as Lat 6° N. I have seen specimens from 
the Me Taw forest, W. of Raheng, from De Lisle island and Pulo 
Rawi off the W. coast of Peninsular Siam, and from the Nakon 
Sritamarat mountains. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOU. SIAM. 



THE FROGS ALLIED TO RANA DORI^E. 219 

In his recent monograph on the South Asian Ranae, 
Boulenger has listed under this species (p. 51) specimens of mine 
from- Daban, Ok Yam, and Koh Chang, single examples in each 
instance. The one from Daban I now refer to R. m. dabana, 
the other two, from Ok Yam and Koh Chang, to R. kohchangce. 

Colour in life. Olive greenish or brownish, with darker 
markings. Throat white, belly and under surface of thighs pale 
yellow, the two colours usually clearly defined by the fold across the 
throat. Lips and limbs with dark bars, and a pale bar between the 
eyes. Iris golden, veined black with a black cross. A broad yellow 
vertebral stripe occurs in many examples, less often a narrow one. 

Remarks. I found this frog common on the Nakon Sri- 
tamarat hills (Khao Ram, Khao Ronpibun, Khao Wang Hij}) in 
February, both on the lower levels and up to 700 metres, where water 
became scarce. It was never found away from streams, and could be 
heard croaking frequently both by day and by night. Tadpoles 
abounded in the shallow puddles and pools, and were obtained in all 
stages of development. 

The tadpole. This agrees in all essential characters with 
that of R. kohchangce. 

Two forms were found; a small one in which the length of 
the body is nearly twice its width and the nostrils are nearer the 
tip of the snout than the eyes ; and a larger one in which the length 
of the body is about 1| times its width and the nostrils are equidis- 
tant between the snout and the eyes. The second form appears to be 
one in which, owing probably to better nourishment, a, greater 
development of the body occurs, altering somewhat its proportions. 
Mouth parts and colouration as in R. kohchangce. 

Dimensions of a specimen of the large form : — total length 
31, head and body 11.5, depth of tail 5.5 mm. Of the small form : — 
total length 28, head and body 8.5, tail 3.5 mm. 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



220 



DR MALCOLM SMITH ON 



t- 1 


N 


H 


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a 


a> 


3 


a> 


(t> 


o 
a 


Cu 


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03 


3 
05 
























cr 




























5" 
















H 


3 


sr 






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; 






er 




s 


£■ 






£ 


cr 




XT- 


e 


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5: 

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to 


to 


oo 


so 










to 


to 


*. 




*» 


De Lisle Id. 


CO 


to 


H" 


o 


V( 


in 
in 


in 
in 


CO 

in 


so 


i- 1 


CO 


o* 


O 


Me Taw forest 


vi 


to 

00 


GO 

os 


to 
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OS 


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in 


CD 


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to 

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JO URN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



THE FROGS ALLIED TO RANA DORI/E 



221 



Rana macrognathus dabana, subsp. nov. 

Plate 9, fig. 3. 
Sana macrognathus (in part), Bouleng., Kec. Ind. Mus., 1920, xx, 
p. 51. 

Types, male, Author's No. 4845, and female, 4842, collected 
at Daban, 200 metres altitude, Langbian plateau, S. Annam, in 
March 1918. 

Similar to R. m. macrognathus Boulenger, but differing in 
the shorter leg, the heels not, or only just touching each other when 
the limbs are folded at right angles to the body ; and in the longer 
postorbitai swelling, which extends as far as a line connecting 
the posterior borders of the tympana. 

Colour. As in B. m. macrognathus, but duller above and 
greyer below. None has a vertebral stripe. 

Five males and one female examined. This frog was found 
along the banks of the Kronfa river, hiding among damp leaves at 
the water's edge. 

Measurements of R. m. dabana in mm. 



Author's No. 


4845 


4842 


2637 


2547 


4844 


Sex. 


6 


9 


d 


6 


6 


Length 






54 


39 


55 


52 


51 


Length of head 






22 


14.5 


22 


22 


21 


Width of head 






25 


16.5 


26 


25 


24 


Snout 






10 


6.5 


10 


10 


9.5 


Eye 






6 


5 


6 


5.5 


5.5 


Interorbital width 






6 


3 


6 


5 


5.5 


Tympanum . . 






6 


3 


6 


5.5 


5.5 


Fore limb . . 






30 


22 


33 


30 


30 


Hind limb . . 






81 


60 


80 


75 


75 


Tibia 






26 


20 


26 


24 


25 


Foot 






26 


20 


26 


24 


25 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



222 



- DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 



Rana pileata Boulenger. 

Plate 9, fig. 4. 

Rana pileata, Bouleng., Journ. N. H. Soc. Siam, 1916, ii, p. 52, 
pi.—; idem., Rec. Ind. Mus., 1920, xx, p. 52. 

This form is the largest of the group, and it has diverged the 
furthest from the primitive form. In it the head attains a remark- 
able development, for in addition to the usual cranial enlargement, 
the postorbital swelling becomes produced as a rounded flap, free 
behind and at the sides. I have nothing to add to Boulenger's ex- 
cellent description of this species. 

Type locality. Khao Sebab, Chantabun, S. E. Siam. Types 
in the British Museum. 

Measurements of R. pileata in mm. 



Author's No. 


1551 


1559 


5881 


3006 


1564 


5877 


5833 


5700 


5695 


3719 


Sex. 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


9 


2 


$ 


$ 


6 


Snout to vent 


64 


56 


53 


52 


61 


51 


59 


54 


49 


44 


Length of head 


26 


21 


20 


23 


29 


18 


21 


20 


19 


18 


Width of head 


31 


24 


23 


25 


33 


20 


24 


22 


20 


20 


Snout 


11 


9 


9 


9 


12 


8 


9 


9 


8 


7.5 


Eye 


6.5 


6 


6 


5 


6.5 


5.5 


6 


5.5 


5 


4.5 


Interorbital width 


8 


5 


5 


6.5 


8 


4 


4.5 


4.5 


4.5 


4.5 


Tympanum 


6 


5 


4 


4.5 


6.5 


4 


4.5 


4 


3.5 


4.5 


Fore limb 


35 


31 


31 


27 


34 


26 


33 


32 


29 


24 


Hind limb 


97 


87 


88 


78 


90 


72 


93 


90 


78 


66 


Tibia 


32 


29 


29 


25 


29 


24 


30 


29 


26 


22 


Foot 


31 


29 


29 


25 


29 


24 


30 


28 


26 


22 




-Q 


so 


ti 




tc 


tb 


to 


a 


ce 


£ 












a 


a 


a 




3 


e3 


Locality 


~J1 

O 

M 


s 

o 

eg 

2 




o 
o 
Pw 

CD 




o 

-Jl 
<o 

3 


V 


h3 
to 



PQ 
bo 

a 

o 


«3 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



THE FROGS ALLIED TO RANA DORI>E. 223 

Distribution. Hills of Siam except in the south-wesfc. I 
have altogether examined some 60 examples from the following 
localities : — 

Khao Sebab and Hup Bon (S. E. Siam); Khao Pleung, Me 
Song forest, Nong Bua, Me Pooan, Me Wang and Pa Meang (N. 
Siam); Me Taw forest (N. W. Siam); Muang Liep, Huey Kan Luang 
and Pon Pissay in French Laos on the Upper Mekong. 

The age at which the head of the male reaches its maximum 
development is not always commensurate with the size of the frog. 
Specimens 1551, 1564 and 3006 are fully grown, the flap is large 
with a good free edge, and the general proportions of the head those 
of maturity. Nos. 1559 and 5881 although also fully grown as 
regards body length, still have the flap only as a small fold of skin, 
while the other developments of the head are in proportion. From 
rough observations which I have been able to make, I believe the 
cranial enlargement commences during the third year of life. 

Eana kohchangae, sp. nov. 

Plate 9, fig. 5. 

Rana dorice, Smith & Kloss, Journ. N. H. Soc. Siam, Dec. 1915, 

i, p. 249. 
Rana macrognathus (in part), Bouleng , Rec. Ind. Mus., 1920, xx, 

p. 51. 

Types male and female, Author's Nos. 2976 and 2985 res- 
pectively. Collected on Koh Chang (Chang Island) in the Inner 
Gulf of Siam, Oct. 1918. Types presented to the British Museum; 
paratypes 2978 and 2980 to the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard College. 

Description of the male type. Vomerine teeth in two short 
oblique series, commencing from the posterior borders of the choanae, 
a little nearer to each other than to the borders of the choanae. 
Lower jaw with fang-like projections. Head broader than long; 
snout rounded, scarcely projecting beyond the mouth, longer than 
the eye ; canthus rostralis obtuse, loreal region slightly concave ; 
nostril a little nearer the tip of the snout than the eye ; distance 
between the nostrils greater than the interorbital width, which 
is greater than that of the upper eyelid ; tympanum very distinct, 

VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



224 DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 

larger than the eye. Fingers moderate, the tips swollen into very- 
small discs, first as long as second, third as long as the snout ; subar- 
ticular tubercles moderate. Hind limb moderate, the tibio-tarsal 
articulation reaching to between the eye and the tip of the snout ; 
heels slightly overlapping when the limbs are folded at right angles 
to the body. Toes moderate, the tips dilated into small but very 
distinct discs, nearly fully webbed, two phalanges of the fourth toe 
free. A well marked tarsal fold; inner metatarsal tubercle moderate, 
half the length of the fifth toe; no outer tubercle. 

Skin of the upper parts with rounded glandules or short 
folds ; a strongs curved fold from the eye to the shoulder. 

Nasal bones in contact. 

Olive brown above, with lighter and darker markings ; a pale 
bar between the eyes ; lips and limbs with dark bars. Below yellow- 
ish white. 

Female, similar to the male, but without any enlargement of 
the head or tooth-like projections to the lower jaw. 

Males with internal vocal sacs. 

Variation. Forty examples from the t}^pe locality shew but 
little variation from each other. The first finger may be a little 
longer than the second ; the hind limb in some males reaches only to 
the eye, while in other (younger) specimens it reaches as far as the 
nostril. 

Two examples have a broad yellow vertebral stripe. 

This frog is the smallest of the group. From. R. dorice it 
differs in the enlargement of the head and tooth -like projections in 
the lower jaw. From R. macrognathus and R.^ileata in the absence 
of any postorbital prominence. 

Distribution. Besides on Koh Chang this frog has been found 
on the neighbouring islands of Kut and Mehsi, and on the adjacent 
mainland at Ok Yam. 

Its presence on the mainland, in view of the closely related 
forms of this group, is of particular interest, for R. pileata, with its 
very distinct occipital flap is found on the same coast only 125 km. 
distant. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



THE FROGS ALLIED TO RANA DORI>E. 



225 



Measurements of 


R. Jcohcl 


anga in 


mm. 






Author's No. 


2976 


2985 


2978 


2980 


2979 


2984 


Sex. 


a 


9 


6 


"2 


6 


9 


Snout to vent 




42 


41 


42 


42 


40 


39 


Length of head 




17 


14 


17 


15.5 


17 


14 


Width of head 




18.5 


15 


19 


16 


18 


15 


Snout 




7 


6 


6 


6.5 


7 


6 


Eye 




4.5 


5 


5 


5.5 


5 


5 


Interorbital width 




4 


3.5 


4.5 


3 


3 


3 


Tympanum . . 




5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


2.5 


Fore limb 




24 


23 


25 


24 


22 


22 


Hind limb 




66 


65 


65 


65 


62 


59 


Tibia 




21 


21 


22 


22 


19 


19 


Foot 




20 


20 


21 


21 


18 


18 . 



Description of the tadpole. 

Head and body. Length about one and three-quarters times 
its breadth, much flattened above and below, snout rounded. Nostrils 
nearer the tip of the snout than the eyes. Eyes looking outwards 
and upwards. Spiraculum sinistral, much nearer the eye than the 
vent. Anus dextral. 

Mouth. Subterminal, small. Beak edged with black. A fringe 
of papillae at the sides and below. Upper lip with two series of 
teeth, the lower one interrupted ; lower lip with three series, the 
uppermost narrowly interrupted, the second continuous and of about 
the same length, the third only half the length. 

Tail. Four times as long as deep, tip pointed ; crests mode- 
rate, upper and lower about equal. 

Colour in life. Reddish or brownish olive, spotted and speck- 
led with darker. Below greyish, uniform. 

Measurements of a specimen with the hind legs well devel- 
oped : — total length 35 ; head and body 12 ; depth of tail 5.5 mm. 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



227 



THE FROGS ALLIED TO RANA DORI>E 
ADDENDUM- 

By Malcolm. A. Smith., f.z.s. 

With a text figure. 

Rana plicatella Stoliczka. 

Rana plicatella, Bouleng., Rec. Ind. Mus., 1920. xx, p. 53. 

Since the publication of the above article (ante pp. 215-225), 
I have been fortunate in obtaining three adult male examples of 
Rana plicatella. They were caught on Bukit Fraser, Pahang, in 
the Malay Peninsula at about 1200 metres altitude. 

These specimens are larger than any previously known, and 
shew probably the cranial development in its most extreme degree. 




Head of It. plicatella, natural size. 

Although easily distinguished by its glandular dorsal folds 
and less fully webbed toes from the other forms allied to it, this frog- 
very clearly belongs to the same group, and must be included in it. 
The crania] enlargements are of precisely the same nature, the only 
variation being in the shape of the occipital prominence. This 
covers about the same area as that of R. m. macrognathus, but in- 
stead of being only a slight swelling beneath the skin, projects 
abruptly upwards at its posterior extremity fojr from 1.5 to 2 mm. 

The colouration of the specimens is olive or olive-brownish 
above with black markings, a black chevron being just distinct; two 
examples had bright orange shades, in life, upon the arms and legs, 
and there are black cross bars upon the limbs of all. Below pale 
sulphur-yellow, the throat and hind limbs speckled with black. Two 
of the specimens have a broad orange-yellow vertebral Hue. 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



228 DR. MALCOLM SMITH ON 

This frog appears to be confined to the Malay Peninsula. The 
type specimen came from Penang or Province Wellesley and is now 
lost. Flower's specimen came from Penang, and there is one in the 
British Museum from Singapore. I have another from Gomhak, 
Selangor, a female with ripe ova (No. 1592). 

Tadpoles (taken in June), and juveniles just leaving the 
water, which I identify as those of liana 'plicaiella were also 
obtained. The larva differs from that of R. m. macrognaihus and 
R. kohchangce in the longer and narrower tail, and in that the upper 
crest does not reach to the root of the tail. I take this opportunity 
to add some details of description which were omitted previously. 

Length of head and body one and a half to one and two- 
thirds times its breadth. Nostrils a little wider apart than the 
distance between the eyes, equidistant between them and the tip of 
the snout. Spiraculum visible both from above and below. Mouth 
with a single short row of papillae on the sides, with one or two 
rows of more elongate ones below, not interrupted in the mid-lino. 

Tail five times as long as deep, the crests somewhat narrow, 
the upper a little higher than the lower and not reaching to the root 
of the tail. 

Measurements of a specimen with hind legs well developed : — 

Total length 34 mm; head and body 11.5 ; depth of tail 4.5. 

The study of this small group of frogs, from an evolutionary 
point of view is of great interest, for in this case there can hardly 
be any doubt that they are all derived from the same ancestor. The 
one doubt refers to R. dorice, which, being the least specialized I 
have assumed to be the progenitor, but which now, in its lack of 
cranial enlargement and want of tooth-like projection in the lower 
jaw, is farther separated from the various members of the group than 
they are from each other. 

Considering the comparatively small area of country over 
which these frogs are spread, the number of forms which have been 
evolved is indeed remarkable, and all tho more so when we consider 
that the conditions under which they all live are almost identical. 



JOURX. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



THE FROGS ALLIED TO RANA DORI/E. 



229 



Measurements of R. plicatella in mm. 



Author's No. 


6510 


6511 


6512 


1592 


Sex. 


6 


6 


J 


5 


Snout to vent 


43 


43 


43 


29 


Length of head 


17 


16 


17 


10 


Width of head 


20 


20 


19.5 


11 


Snout 


7 


7 


7 


4 


Eye 


4.5 


4.5 


4.5 


3 


Interorbital width 


5.5 


5 


5.5 


2.5 


Tympanum 


5 


4 


4.5 


3 


Fore limb 


24 


25 


24 


17 


Hind limb 


70 


75 


77 


51 


Tibia 


24 


25 


26 


17 


Foot 


22 


23 


24 


15 



Vol. iv no. 4, 1922, 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC SIAM. VOL. IV. PLATE 10. 




Fig. r. Anal appendages of Agriocnemis binocellata. a. From above, b. Semi-profile. 



n 





li 



Fig. 2. Dorsal markings of the first and second abdominal segments of— a. Pseudagrion siamensis 
b. Pseudagrion williamsoni, c. Pseudagrion laidlawi, d. Pseudagrion bengalense and microcephalum. 



BANGKOK DRAGONFLIES. 



231 



A COLLECTION OF DRAGONFLlES FROM BANGKOK- 

By Major F. C. Fraser, i. m. s. 

With Plate 10. 

The collection, which contains five new species, consists of a 
little over a hundred specimens, and was made during the month of 
September 1921 by General E. W. Trotter. 

I have included also a small collection, sent me in the pre- 
vious year by Dr. Malcolm Smith. 

Of interest is a new species of Pseudoc opera, the type of the 
genus being P. arachnoides Fraser, collected by Mr. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher this year at Margherita, Assam. The males of the new 
species and P. arachnoides are almost indistinguishable, but the 
females vary so much that I have preferred to give the new insect 
specific rank. The genus will probably be found to be widely spread 
between the two localities cited. Another insect until now only des- 
cribed from India (Nagpur and Gauhati) is Agriocnemis d'abreui 
Fras., which is represented by two females in the collection. (The 
latter insect and Pseudocopera are described in MS. in the Memoirs 
of Pusa.) 

No notes have been furnished on the list of dragon-flies which 
follows : — 

Sub-family Libellulinse. 

1. POTOMARCHA OBSCURA Karsch. 

2. Lathrecista asiatica asiatica Kirby. 

3. Orthetrum sabina Drury. 

4. Diplacodes trivialis Ramb. 

5. Brachvthemis contaminata Fabr. 

6. Crocothemis servilia Drury. 

7. Neurothemis fluctuans Fabr. 

8. Neurothemis tullia tullia Drury. 

9. ACISOMA l'ANORPOIDES PANORPOIDES Ramb. 

10. Brachydiplax malcolmi, sp. nov. 
Several males and a female from Bangkok, 26.9.21. 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922 , 



232 MAJOR F. C. FRASER ON 

Male. Abdomen 24 mm. Hindwing 30 mm. 

Head. Lips, epistome and face whitish yellow ; frons and 
vesicle metallic blue ; occiput black ; eyes olivaceous with a cap of 
reddish brown above. 

Prothorax yellowish. 

Thorax warm brown on the dorsum, bright golden yellow 
laterally, the postero-lateral suture marked finely with brown in its 
upper two-thirds. The dorsum and lateral markings are pruinescent. 

Legs black, the coxae and trochanters bright golden yellow. 

Abdomen. The first three basal segments reddish yellow, the 
apical two-thirds of the third segment deeply pruinosed and almost 
white on the dorsum, remaining segments warm brown intensifying 
analwards until quite black. Possibly in the fully adult male all 
these latter segments are pruinosed but all the specimens before me 
appear to be fully adult and only show pruinescence on the 3rd 
segment. 

Anal superior appendages as long as the 9th segment (which 
is nearly 3 times as long as the 10th), narrow at the base, broadening 
apically where they show a broad, blunt point directed downward, 
apex pointed. 

Inferior appendage triangular, curling upward at the end. 

Wings hyaline but faintly enfumed at the apex and warmly 
saii'ronated at the base as far out as the 2nd antenodal nervure ; 
reticulation black and prominent ; 2 rows of cells in the discoidal 
field ; trigones and hypertrigones entire ; one row of cells between 
llxpl. and lis ; Mspl. poorly developed ; divided cells in outer angle 
of loop only ; 7 antenodal nervures and 6 postnodal nervures in fore- 
wing, 6 of each in the hind : stigma very large, light yellowish 
brown. 

Genital organs. Lamina broad and very depressed, its free 
border fringed with yellow hairs; inner tentaculae very broad, very 
robust, rounded, and short, parrot-beak shaped hooks directed directly 
inward, the outer short, broad, rounded, not nearly overlapping the 
lobe ; lobe small, elongate, converging in a spiral plane. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. -SIAM. 



DRAGONFLIES FROM BANGKOK. 233 

Female. Very similar to the male but not pruinescent. 
Differs as follows: — Thorax uniformly golden yellow marked with 
an oval spot of brown on the upper part of the humeral suture, a 
small, obsolete, diffuse spot on the lower part of the first lateral 
suture and a streak on the postero-lateral. The first and last spots 
are inclined to be metallic in some lights. 

Abdomen reddish yellow, the sutures finely black. First 
segment with a broadish, subdorsal, black, longitudinal stripe ; 3rd 
with a diffuse, brownish, transverse spot just behind the transverse 
suture ; on the 4th to 8th, posterior to the transverse suture a black- 
ish brown streak incomplete apically, merging on the 7th and 8th 
with the dark brown which covers most of these segments and the 
whole of the 9th and 10th. 

Anal appendages short, conical, pointed, dark brown. 

Genital valves, two small, triangular, leaf-like flaps. 

Saffronation of the wings at the base not nearly so marked as 
in the male. 

I have named this species after Dr. Malcolm Smith. 

11. RHYOTHEMIS VAR1EGATA Joh. 

12. RHYOTHEMIS PHYLLIS. PHYLLIS Sulz. 

13. Tholymis till a kg a Fabr. 

14. Pantala flavescens Fabr. 

15. UltOTHEMIS SIGNATA SIGNATA Burni. 

16. Zyxomma obtusum Alb. 

Sub-family Gomphinse- 

17. Ictinus praecox Selys. 

Sub-family Aeschninse 

18. Anax guttatus Burm. 

Sub-family Coenagrioninse 

19. Agriocnemis d'abreui Fraser. 

20. Agriocnemis incisa Selys. 

21. Agriocnemis binocellata, sp. nov. 

(Fig. I. a and b.) 

Male. (Only one specimen.) 
Abdomen 24 mm. Hind wing 14 mm. 

VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



234 MAJOR F. C. FRASER ON 

Head matt black marked with a small, transversely oval, blue 
spot on either side of the central ocellus, and a large, blue, postocular 
spot. Labium white, labrum and epistome and cheeks greenish, the 
former traversed by a bvoad, black stripe. 

Prothorax with the posterior lobe projecting backwards medi- 
ally in a tongue-like process, black with a yellowish green collar in 
front and a streak of the same colour on the posterior border limited 
above by the small, medial lobe mentioned above. 

Thorax black on the dorsum marked by a fine, blue, ante- 
humeral stripe, laterally bluish turning to greenish-yellow low down 
on the sides and marked by a moderately broad, black stripe on the 
postero-lateral suture. 

Abdomen long and slender, black marked with greenish-blue 
or blue. The 1st segment entirely greenish-blue except for a small, 
black, quadrate, dorsal spot ; 2nd segment has a marking like the 
spectacles on the hood of a cobra and resembling somewhat that seen 
in Agriocnemis d'abreui and Agriocnemis clauseni ; the dorsum is 
black, this colour constricted apically so that only a narrow stem of 
black remains on the dorsal carina, whilst basally there are two 
large, subdorsal, blue, oval spots ; segments 3 to 6 have long, narrow, 
subdorsal lines traversing the basal three-fourths of each segment 
and encroaching on the black at either end so that the enclosed black 
tapers abruptly at either end and forms a thick, black annule at the 
apex of each segment ; segment 7 has only two small, subdorsal, blue 
spots at the base ; segment 8 is entirely black, and 9 and 10 are en- 
tirely azure blue, the latter shallowly notched behind. Superior 
anal appendages black, paler beneath and inwardly, rather longer 
than the 10th segment. Viewed from above they are strongly divari- 
cate, swollen at the base and then constricted and again broadening 
so as to appear slightly clubbed at the apex. Seen from the side 
they are foliate, the apex turned down abruptly and ending in a 
small point. The inferior appendages are very tiny and have been 
too damaged for purposes of examination. 

Wings hyaline; stigma rather elongate, blackish, the circum- 
ference paler ; the arc is situated widely distal to the 2nd antenodal 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SI AM. 



DRAGONFLIES FROM BANGKOK. 235 

nervure and more so than is usual even in Agriocnemis; the tri- 
gones are not very acutely pointed and rather wider than is usual 
for the genus; 8 postnodal nervures in the forewing, 6 in the hind. 

Legs white, the extensor surface of the femora black, as is 
also the last joint of the tarsus. Tibia? armed with 3 to 4 long 
spines on the Outer side, with a row of numerous, smaller ones on 
the inner side. Claw -hooks robust, situated nearly at the end of the 
claws. 

22. ISCHNURA SENEGALEXSIS Ramb. 

23. PSEUDAGRION SIAMEXSLS, sp. llOV. 

(Fig 2. a). 

Male. Length of abdomen 30 mm., of hindwing 19 mm. 

Head pale sky-blue with a narrow, transverse, black stripe 
crossing the vertex at the level of the ocelli and throwing a projec- 
tion back just to the outer side of the ocelli which, meeting the black 
on the occiput, encloses a large,, subtriangular spot of azure blue 
behind each eye. Eyes dark brown above, greenish below. 

Prothorax blue with longitudinal, black, mid-dorsal, sub-dorsal 
and lateral lines which coalesce anteriorly and posteriorly to enclose 
spots of the ground colour. 

Thorax azure blue, paler at the sides, marked with a mid-dor- 
sal, narrow black stripe and narrow humeral bands of the same 
colour. 

Wings hyaline, stigma lozenge-shaped, blackish ; postnodal 
nervures 9 in the forewing, 7 in the hind. 

Abdomen blue on the dorsum, paler on the sides and chang- 
ing imperceptibly to yellowish below. Segment 1 marked with a 
dorsal, quadrate, black spot which does not quite reach the apex ; 
segment 2 with a narrow, basal annule, pointed in the middle and 
an apical, goblet-shaped marking extending onty to the middle of 
the segment, quite square basally and with a very short stem apically 
where it joins an apical ring; segments 3 to 6 with long, black, 
dorsal stripes which taper basally and expand apically just before 
the distal end where they join apical annules ; segment 7 similar but 
with no apical contraction after the expansion ; segments 8 and 9 

VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



236 MAJOR F. C. FRASER ON 

azure blue with narrow, subapical, black annul es which are spined ; 
segment 10, the dorsum bearing a large, quadrate, black spot. 

Superior anal appendages as long as the 10th segment, 
strongly bifid at the apex, black, whitish internally, with a robust, 
basal spur directed downward and inward. Inferior appendages 
small, short, foliate, white with a minute apical, black point. 

Female unknown. 

This new species belongs to the group which includes Pseu- 
dagrion bengalense, P.*microcephalum and P. laidlawi. From the 
first it is distinguished by having black annules on segments 8 and 9, 
and by the goblet on the dorsum of the 2nd segment not being 
hollowed out in front and by the fewer postnodal nervures; from the 
second by the fewer postnodal nervures and the dorsal marking on 
the 2nd segment; and from the third by the ground colour being blue 
instead of lilaceous, by the shape of the dorsal marking on the 2nd 
segment which is shaped as a thistle-head in laidlawi, and lastly by 
the superior appendage having a basal spine which is absent in 
laidlawi. From P. williamsoni it is distinguished by the shape of 
the marking on the 2nd abdominal segment. (Fig. 2. h). 
24. Ceriagriox auranticum, sp. no v. 

3 males from Bangkok, Aug. 20. 21. 

Male. Length of abdomen 27 mm., hindwing 18 mm. 

This insect is very similar to two closely related forms : — 
C. rubiae Laid., and C. erubescens Selys. 

It is to be distinguished from both by the shorter petiolation of 
the wings, this ceasing distinctly before ac. In this respect it differs 
from all other forms that I have had the opportunity of examining. 

The arc is also well distal to the 2nd antenodal nervure, 
agreeing in this respect with erubescens, but differing from rubiae 
in which the are lies opposite the 2nd antenodal. 

The ground colour is a much richer orange than in rubiae 
and differs from erubescens in which the colouring of the abdomen 
is crimson. 

The stigma is a warm, light reddish brown, almost brick red. 
Postnodal nervures number 10 in the forewing, 8 in the hind. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



DRAGONFLIES FROM BANGKOK. 237 

The appendages are very similar to those of the related forms, 
the superior being foliate, triangular as seen from behind and direct- 
ed downward between the inferior, blackish above. In riibiae the}?- 
lie either directly above or outside the inferior. The inferior are 
triangular as seen from the side and rapidly taper before the apex 
which is tipped with black. They are directed almost directly up- 
ward. 

25. PSEUDOCOPERA TROTTERI, sp. nov. 

2 pairs. Sept. 2. 21. 

Male. Length of abdomen 36 mm., hind wing 21 mm. 

This species closely resembles a pair of dragonflies, — Pseudo- 
copera arachnoides Fras. (Mem. of Pusa), collected by Mr. Bainbrigge 
Fletcher at Margherita, Assam, 14-19.5.1920 which I had the 
opportunity of examining this year. It is a curious coincidence that 
another species, closely allied, should be reported so soon and from 
a locality far distant. 

The genus is closely akin to Coeliccia from which it differs, 
however, by the shorter petiolation of the wings, this ceasing 
proximal to ac instead of at ac. The two hinder pair of tibiae are 
also dilated, the hindermost enormously so. Lastly the anal append- 
ages are strongly generic and differ markedly from any found in 
Goel iccia. 

The male of this new species differs from P. arachnoides by 
the much shorter length of the abdomen, 36 mm. as against 41 mm. 
in arachnoides, by the fewer postnodal nervures, 13/11 as against 
15/13, by the longer and narrower stigma and its darker colour, 
sepia, and lastly by the 9th abdominal segment being entirely pale 
blue instead of blue marked with black, 

The females of the two species differ rather more markedly 
and this may be better shown in tabulated form as follows : — 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



238 



MAJOR FRASER CN DRAGONPLIES FROM BANGKOK. 



P. trotteri. 

Abdomen SI '5 mm. 
Hindwing 20'5 mm. 

Postnodiil nervures in forewing 12/lo., 

hindwing 11. 
10th abdominal segment almost entirely 

blue. 
Markings of head pale creamy. 
Markings of thorax pale blue. 
Legs white marked with black. 



P. arachnoides. 

Abdomen 39 mm. 
Hindwing 24 mm. 
Postnodal nervures in forewing 14/16., 

hindwing 13. 
10th abdominal segment almost entirely 

black. 
Markings of head deep ochrcous. 
Markings of thorax deep ochreous 
Legs uniform bright ochrcous. 



The curious and well-defined markings on the head and 
upper part of the humeral, black band, are exactly the same shape 
in the two species, as also are the form and colouring of the anal 
appendages. 

26. Lestes sp. 

Female only. Closely resembles L. umbrina Selys. A male 
of this form is necessary to settle the identification. 



JOUKN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



239 
MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

No. I. — Note on the Malay Sambar (Cervus iinicolor equinus.) 

In Vol. I. page 117 of this Journal I described a fine head 
from Lampang in Northern Siam. 

The following are ray measurements of a better head- in the 
possession of Mr. W. G. Peiniger : — 

Length. Left 37 ; i, Right 37 ; Circumferences, above coronet 
9 inches, above brow tine 7 inches. The greatest outside spread is 
31 inches. Mr. Peiniger informs me that he picked up this head, 
together with four others, in the Me Teun river, Me Ping, Western 
Siam, some years ago, and that all had been recently killed by wild 
dogs within a comparatively small area, a striking illustration of the 
damage done by these red of hunting dogs. 

Kemp (Vol. I, p. 51 of this Journal) has alluded to the Sam- 
bar's fondness for the fruit of the Makawk tree. One frequently sees 
small heaps containing 10 to 20 well cleaned Makawk stones (which 
are the size of a pigeon's egg) far removed from any Makawk tree, 
and most frequently seen on ridges near, but removed from, Sambar's 
excrement. The Sambar apparently swallows the fruits whole and 
ejects the stones later on when ruminating; though at the moment I 
cannot call to mind any other ruminant which swallows large indi- 
gestible stones, though many jungle denizens, Civets for example, 
pass fruit stones through the body. 

The bark of the Makawk tree (Spondias mangifera) is 
astringent like the fruit, though no animals touch the bark. 

K. G. Gairdner. 
Jan. 15 1922. 

No. II. — Jntelligence of Otters. 

While travelling down the Chumpon river some years ago 
not many miles from the sea, I encountered a pack of otters. There 
were ten or twelve of them, and they were moving along at the 
Avater's edge, playing about and evidently in search of food. The 
tide at the time was low, and there was a large expanse of mud be- 
tween the river and the proper bank. I was loth to shoot one of 
them for I have kept otters in captivity, and know what fascinating 
pets they are ; but a specimen was badly wanted as very little is 
known about the distribution of otters in Siam. To judge by their 
size they were the larger form, Lutra species, and not the small 
clawless one, Aonyx einerea. 

I fired at one of the biggest animals but only managed to 
wound it, and it went up towards the bank evidently to get under 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



240 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

cover of the jungle there. The second shot fared no better except 
to turn the animal back again towards the water. The rest of the 
pack were quite unconcerned by the noise, but stopped and stared at 
us, raising themselves and standing up on their hind legs to get a 
better view of us. 

Then an extraordinary thing happened. The whole pack- 
suddenly surrounded their wounded comrade, and uttering loud cri<;s, 
four or live of them seized it, and partly lifting, partly dragging, 
conveyed it over to the bank and disappeared into the jungle beyond. 
The soft mud at this spot, a broad stretch of 15 to 20 yards, made it 
impossible to follow them and see what happened afterwards. 

Malcolm Smith. 
Jan. 1922. 

-\- No. III. — The Bittern (Botaurus stellar is) in Siam. 

On March 5th last, I received a specimen of the large bittern 
(Botaurus stellar is) shot by Major Forty at Preng, near Petriu. It 
appears to be the fourth record of this bird in this part of the world, 
the other three being from Raheng, Malacca and Singapore respect- 
ively (vide this Journal, v, p. 81.). The bittern is well known 
throughout Europe, though nowhere common. In winter it migrates 
to the Mediterranean, S. W. Asia, India, Burma and China. It is 
likely that it is more common in Siam than it is thought to be, but 
it is a shy bird, hiding away during the day time in swampy places 
among tall reeds, and is thus seldom seen. Major Forty's bird was 
an old male and very fat, and was excellent eating. The skin is 
now in my collection. 

C. J. Aagaard. 
April, 1922. 

No. IV. — The Burmese Hoase Crow (Gorvus splendens insolens) 

Having in mind Gyldenstolpe's statement that this Crow was 
common in Bangkok, whereas during the past 16 years I have only 
seen it once in Petchaburi town, I took particular note when coming 
across from Mouhnein to Raheng early this year, as to how far this 
dreadful bird extended towards Siam. In Moulraein it is of course 
the commonest and noisiest vertebrate the place supports, and suc- 
cessfully competes for the " chota hazri " laid on the verandah, unless 
one instantly dashes from bed to table. 

It seems to be a maritime or lowland bird, and was entirely 
absent a few miles East of Kawkarik where the ascent of the Dawna 
mountains commences, some 40 miles East of Mouhnein, being re- 
placed by the ordinary jungle crow. 

K. G. Gairdner. 
March, 1922. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. . 241 

No. V.— Pinus Merkusii. * 

In his introduction to " On plants from South Annam " Vol. 
IV. No. 3 page 114 of this Journal, Kloss denies the occurrence of 
Pinus in the Malay Peninsula " even if we consider this peninsula 
to commence, as we must if we want to be accurate, at the head of 
the Gulf of Siam i. e. in Lat. N. 13° 30'." 

In Vol. I of this Journal page 35, I recorded that " at Khao 
Pa Lai, south-west of Petchaburi, I found Pinus Merkusii at an 

elevation of 400 metres growing on bare expcsecl ridges etc 

but the trees were stunted and small, having a diameter of only 
one-third that given by Brandis." This was in Lat. N. 12° 50', but 
surve3 , ors of my party reported that this pine grew in the area to the 
South, approximately Lat. N. 12° 30'. 

Khao Pa Lai is outlined on the map facing page 130, Vol. I. 
of this Journal and is an isolated range situate in the most southerly 
bend of the Petchaburi river near the Karen village of Song Pi Nong. 
At the time I noted in Brandis that " the biggest tree seen measured 
58 inches circumference and others of three feet were seen growing 
on bare slopes from 600 up to 1300 feet elevation." 

Since recording the above I have seen P. Merkusii on Doi 
Sutep, Chiengmai, at 3800 to 4500 feet elevation on granite. It is 
also distributed in the forest in which I am stationed here in Raheng 
(Lat. N. 17° Long E. 99°) growing on shale and granite at 1300 to 
2500 feet, and on granite to 3600 feet where the drainage is good. 

Lack of humus, drainage, and probably also absence of jungle 
fires have, I think, more to do with the distribution of this pine than 
has elevation, as in the three areas mentioned it grows on knife-edge 
ridges or steep hillsides affording little lodgment for dead leaves, 
grasses, or other inflammable material. On the Tenasserim side from 
Moulmein or Myawaddy (Brandis southerly record) southwards, the 
rainfall is probably too heavy for pines, whereas for Raheng district 
it is only 41 inches. 

K. G. Gairdner. 
March. 1922. 



* Siamese = Ton son. Laos= Ton kiah. 

VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 

S 



242 . 

REVIEW. 



We are in receipt of "The Snakes of Ceylon" by Col. 1\ 
Wall., CMC, i. m.s.. a fair sized volume of 581 pages. As a popular 

account of the snakes of the Island with its voluminous notes upon 
the feeding, breeding, and other habits of the species found there, it 
is a valuable and interesting work. The author lias drawn freely 
from his own large experience, and has spared no pains to make the 
life history of each species as complete as possible. 

A full account is also given of the poisonous forms, and the 
symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the various types of snake 
poison are discussed at length. In this respect the work should be 
valuable to the medical practitioners, not only of Ceylon, but of all 
India as well, for in the matter of poisonous snakes the two countries 
have much in common. 

An attempt has been made to supply the amateur with a 
ready method of identification, but we doubt if any s}''stem can 
produce reliable results without far greater study than the average 
man is prepared to give. 

On turning to the more scientific side of the book, however, 
we are disappointed. A list of synonyms accompanies each species, 
but without the authors names or references attached it is of little 
value. Nor do we think that Col. Wall's changes in nomenclature will 
meet with general approval. In his treatment of the sea-snakes in 
particular there is much ground for discussion. 

Nor, lastly, can we agree with Col. Wall, not alone among 
authors in this respect, when, having accepted the correctness of a 
name he refrains from using it on the grounds that the one now in 
use has grown familiar and is best retained. Science is for all time, 
and the sentimental considerations of a passing generation should 
not be allowed to affect our views and obscure the truth. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



243 
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY, 



9th Annual General Meeting. 

This was held at the Bangkok Times Office on March 8th, 
1922, and was attended by 18 members and 3 guests. The Vice- 
prcsident, Dr. M. A. Smith presided. 

The minutes of the previous General Meeting having been 
read and confirmed, Dr. Smith presented the statement of accounts 
for the past year, and reported on the work of the Society during 
that period. He mentioned that this had not been as great as in 
previous years, owing to the fact that several of the most active 
members were absent on leave. He mentioned also that two newly 
joined members of the Society were botanists and would be glad to 
assist any others who might care to take up this study. 

The accounts were then adopted, and the election of officers 
for the ensuing year took place. The result was as follows: — 

President : Dr. M. A. Smith. 

Vice-president : Mr. E. J. Godfrey. 

Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : Mr. A. Marcan. 

The committee consisting of the above-mentioned together 
with Messrs. S. G. Lambert and C. J. Aagaard. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the retiring Hon. Secretary 
and Treasurer, Mr. S. H. Cole. Dr. Smith and Mr. Godfrey were 
elected co-editors of the Journal. 

The Chairman then referred to a question of amalgamation 
with the Siam Society which had arisen and was under consideration 
between the committee of the Natural History Society and delegates 
from the Siam Society. He pointed out that it was not open to the 
members at the present meeting to do more than discuss the matter, 
and that voting could only take place after the matter had been 
fully considered by every member of the Natural History Society. 

He outlined the advantages and disadvantages to the Society 
of amalgamation, stating that whereas, on the one hand, the 
Journal of the Society would reach a larger number of people, and 
it might be possible with the conjoint funds of the Societies to rent 
or obtain a room for the permanent and exclusive use of the mem- 
bers of the two Societies, — on the other hand, the Natural History 
Society would lose its identity, and in particular its Journal 
would thenceforth be published under the name of the Siam 
Society. There would also not be the complete independence of 
control over natural history matters that they had while existing 
as a separate Society. However, it would be insisted upon, on 
behalf of the Natural History Society, that, in case of amal- 



VOL. TV, NO, 4, 1922. 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

gamation the section of Natural History would continue to publish 
its papers separately and not interspersed with the Siam Society's 
usual papers. 

Mr. Brewitt Taylor suggested that it would be better to defer 
the question of amalgamation until the Natural History Society 
was in need of the help which such amalgamation might bring, and 
that such did not appear to be the case at present. 

No further remarks being offered, the business part of the 
meeting concluded, and a display of specimens followed. 

Mrs. Malcolm Smith exhibited specimens of fish obtained in 
and around Bangkok; Mr. A. Marcan exhibited a specimen of a new 
tree (Bignoii ia species) found in Bangkok, which would shortly be 
described. Mom Luang Pe exhibited a living specimen of the Golden 
< at (F. chaus), and Dr. Smith exhibited some live reptiles and batra- 
chians that he had recently obtained in the Nakon Sritamarat hills. 

10th Annual General Meeting. 

This was held after dinner at the British Club on July 4th, 
1922, and was attended by 14 members and 4 guests. 

Dr. Smith shewed a specimen of the Yellow-headed Krait 
(Bungarus fiavicepsj which he had recently obtained in the Nakon 
Sritamarat mountains, and compared it with the other two species of 
Krait found in Siam. He shewed also a series of the frogs allied to 
liana dorice, and pointed out the remarkable changes which had 
taken place in the various members of the group in the course of 
evolution. 

He exhibited also specimens of a new frog (Bana cataracta) 
from the Nakon Sritamarat mountains and the mountains of Pahang, 
which would shortly be described. 

Major W. R. S. Ladell then read a paper upon " The Che- 
mistry of Plant Life," being the first of a. proposed series showing 
the relationships between the chemistry of plant and the chemistry 
of animal life. A number of experiments were shown indicating the 
general composition of leaves and seeds; (1) water (2) carbon (3) 
nitrogen (4) mineral matter. 

The composition of the combustible portion of plant tissues 
was dealt with briefly, and the importance of carbohydrates, proteins, 
oils and fats, emphasised. The changes occurring during the growth 
of plants from the seed were considered generally, experiments being 
shown relative to the conditions necessary for the proper germination 
of seeds, (1) moisture required (2) air is essential (3) the seed 
changes the air from a supporter to a non-supporter of combustion, 
oxygen being replaced by carbon dioxide (4) heat is evolved during 
^Termination. 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY v 245 

Ewart's work on the longevity of seeds was touched on. The 
inhibiting effect of carbon dioxide on the germination of seeds Was 
mentioned. Details were given of various methods for storage and 
preservation of seeds in damp and tropical climates. The importance 
of enzyme action, illustrated by the conversion of starch into sugar 
by saliva. Structure and use of the leaf. Experiments illustrating 
assimilation, formation of starch in daylight, and its removal in the 
dark. Plants purify the atmosphere for animal life by absorbing the 
-carbon dioxide and replenishing the oxygen. The processes of res- 
piration and transpiration were shown practically. Transpiration 
coefficient. 

The structure and use of the root. How the plant absorbs 
mineral matter from the soil by osmosis. General nature of the 
mineral matter as represented by the ash of plants. 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



247 



PUBLICATIONS IN THE LIBRARY OF THE NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY OF SIAM. 

The Society's Library is at present located in the Bangkok 
Times Building. Applications for the keys may be made there at 
any time between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. Members are requested to 
enter in the book kept for the purpose, the name of the publication 
borrowed, with the date when taken out and returned. 

BOOKS and PAMPHLETS. 

On Mammals. 

Catalogue of Indian Big Game. 1913. R. Lydekker, f. r. s. 

On Birds. 

How to know the Indian Waders. 1906. Frank Finn, b. a., f. z. s. 
The Waterfowl of India and Asia. 1909. „ „ „ „ 

The Game Birds of India and Asia. 1911. „ „ „ „ 

A Bird Calender for Northern India. 1916. Douglas Dewar. 
Guide to the Gallery of Birds in the British Museum. 1910. 
Birds Benificial to Agriculture. 1919. F. W. Frohawk, m.b.o.u., b\e.s. 

On Reptiles and Batrachians. 

The Reptiles of the Indo- Australian Archipelago. Dr. Nelly de Rooij. 
Vol. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. 1915. II. Ophidia. 1917. 
The Poisonous Terrestrial Snakes of our British Indian Dominions. 

First Ed. 1908. Major F. Wall, I. M. s., c. M. z. s. 
The Snakes of Ceylon. 1921. Col. F. Wall, c. M. G., I. M.S. 
Batrachians of Southern India. 1888. Edgar Thurston. 

On Fishes. 

Indo-Australian Fishes. Vol. I, II and III, 1911-1916. Dr. Max Weber 

& Dr. L. F. de Beaufort. 
The Fauna of British India, Fishes. Vol. I and II. 1889. 

Francis Day, c. I. e., l. l. d. 
Bibliography of Fishes. Vol. I. 1916. Vol. II. 1917. Bashford Dean. 
The Sea Fisheries of Malabar & South Canara. 1900. Edgar Thurston. 
Poissons d'eau douce de lTndo-Ciiine. 1907. Dr. Jacques Pellegrin. 



VOL. IV, NO. 4, 1922. 



248 PUBLICATIONS IN THE SOCIETY'S LIBRARY. 

On Insects. 

The House Fly. Life History. 1920. Ernest E. Austin, D.S.O. 

The House Fly as a Danger to Health. 1913. Ernest E. Austin, D.s.o. 

Furniture Beetles. 1920. Charles Gahan, d.sc. 

Mosquitoes and their Relation to Disease. 1916. F. W. Edwards, R.A.. 

Botanical. 

Contributions to the Flora of Siam. 1913. William Grant Craib, M.A- 
The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants. 1882. 

Charles Darwin, M.A., F.B.S. 
Mushrooms and Fungi. 1910. W. G. Smith. 

Miscellaneous. 

The Spiders of Burma. 1895. T. Thorell. 

Arachnida and Myriopoda Injurious to Man. 1917. Stanley Hirst. 
The Louse and its Relation to Disease. 1915. Bruce F. Cummings. 
Marine Boring Animals. 1919. W. T. Caiman, D.sc. 
Ramesvaram Island and Fauna of the Gulf of Manaar. 1895. 

Edgar Thurston, C. M. Z. s. etc. 
Instructions for Collectors. No. 13. (Brit. Mus. pub.) 
Alcohol and Alcoholometers. 1916. S. H. Harmer, D.sc. F.R.s. 
Guides to Museums, Catalogues, Reports, etc. 

Periodicals. 

The Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam. 

Vol. I, 1914 to d a te. 
The Philippine Journal of Science. 

Vol. X, 1915 to date. 
Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums. 

Vol. I, 1905 to date. 
Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

No. 66, 1914 to date. 
The Sarawak Museum Journal. 

Vol. II, Pt. 3, No. 7, June 1917. 
Journal of the Bombay Natural Historjr Society. 

Vol. XXIV, 1915 to date. 
Recoixls of the Indian Museum. 

Vol. VIII, 1914 to date. 

JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC. SIAM. 



PUBLICATIONS IN THE SOCIETY'S LIBRARY. 249 

Spolia Zeylanica. 

Vol. X, 1915 to date. 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

Vol. XVII, Series 8, 1916 to date. 
Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

Vol. XVIII, 1916 to date. 
Records of the Australian Museum. 

Vol. XIII, No. 5, March 1922. 
Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 

1902 to date. (Zoological papers only). 
Arkiv fiir Botanik. (Stockholm) 

Band 13, 1913 to date. 
Medeelingen Instituut voor Plantenziekten. 

{Originally Medeelingen Laboratorum voor Plantenziekten.) 

No. 18, 1915 to date. 
Bulletin du Jardin Botanique. (Buitenzorg.) 

Vol. XVIII, 1915 to date. 
Treubia. (Jardin Botanique du Buitenzorg.) 

Vol. I, 1921 to date. 
Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. (Paris.) 

1915 to date. 
Arkiv fiir Zoologi. (Stockholm) 

Band 8, 1913 to date. 
Le Gerfaut. (Revue beige d' Ornithologie.) 

Dec. 1911 to date. 



VOL. IV, No. 4, 1922. 



VOLUME IV. 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Acanthephippium striatum 
Aceipiter affinis 

— virgatus affinis 

Acisoma panorpoicles panorpoides 
Acrocepbalus cylindraceus 

— Klossii, sp. nov. 
Aclianturn Bonii . . " 

— cupreuru 

— flabellulatum 

— induratum 

— Klossii, sp. nov. 

— opacum 
Aegialitis jerdoni 
Aegithina tipliia 
Ageratum conyzoides . . 
Agriocnemis 

— binocellata, sp. nov. {PL 10) 

— clauseni 

— d'abreui 

— incisa 
Ainsliaea pteropoda . . 
Alcedo bengalensis 

— ispida bengalensis 
Alcippe phoeocephala davisoni 

magnirostris 

Allotinus drumila 
■ grisea, ssp. nov. {PL VI) 

— horsfieldi 
continentalis 

— posidion 

atacinus 

rekkia, ssp. nov. {PL VI) 

Alpinia bracteata 

— conchigera 

— Murdochii 

— oxymitra 

— velutina, sp. nov. 
Amaurornis phoenicura 

chinensis 

sinensis 

Amomum lacteum, sp. nov. 



231, 233 



Page. 
. 117 
. 29 
. 29 
. 231 
. 142 
. 142 
. 159 
. 159 
.• 159 
. 159 
. 159 
. 159 
. 39 
. 88 
. 145 
. 235 
. 233 
. 234 
234 
233 
148 
86 



25 
25 
180, 181 
180 
180 
180 
167, 180 
180 
180 
123 
123 
123 
123 
123 
37 
37 
37 
122 



— uliginosum lappaceum 
Ampullaria 

— begini 

— celebensis 

— dalyi 

— gracilis 

— insularum 

— nux . . 

— pesmei 
■ — polita 

compressus 

major 

— turbinis 

erytbrocbeila 

subampullacea 

subglobosa 

— winkleyi 
Anas coromandeliana 

— javanica 
Anastomus oscitans 
Anax guttatus 
Aneilema giganteum 
Anemone sumatrana 
Aonyx cinerea 
Ardea cinnamomea 

— flavicollis 

— garzetta 

— grayii 
— ■ javanica 

— melanolopba 

— nycticorax 

— oscitans 

— stellaris 
Ardeola baccbus 

— grayi 
Ardetta cinnamomea 
Argostemma borragineum 
Arbopala andamanica andamanica 

ignara, ssp. nov. {PL VI) 

— camdeo 

— dispar, sp. nov. {PL VI). 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 





Page. 


Arhopala fulla 


.. 185 


— opalina {PI. VI). 


.. 184 


Arundia speciosa 


.. 119 


Astur badius poliopsis 


.. 29 


— soloensis 


.. 29 


Athene cuculoides 


.. 27 


— pulchra 


.. 27 


Axonopus semialatus . . 


.. 126 


Azanus ubaldus 


.. 183 


— uranus 


.. 183 


— urios, sp. nov. (PI. VI). 


.. 182 


Balanophora (Diphora) annamensis 


, sp. nov. 157 


Baza jerdoni 


.. 30 


— lophotes lophotes 


.. 29 


Begonia eircumlobata 


.. 133 


— laciniata 


.. 133 


— langbianensis, sp. nov. 


113, 133 


Bidens tripartita 


.. 147 


Biduanda cyara 


.. 187 


Bignonia 


.. 244 


Blepharis boerhavkefolia 


.. 153 


Blumea chinensis 


.. 145 


— glandulosa 


.. 145 


— Klossii, sp. nov. 


.. 145 


— laciniata 


.. 145 


Boehmeria nivea 


.. 158 


Botaurus stellaris 


43, 240 


Brachydiplax malcolmi, sp. nov. . 


.. 231 


Brachythemis contaminata 


164, 231 


Bubo coromandus klossi 


.. 26 


Bubulcus lucidus eoromanda 


.. 86 


Buchanania siamensis 


.. 130 


Buchanga annectens 


.. 90 


— atra cathoeca 


53, 54 


longus 


53, 54 


— leucophaea 


.. 54 


disturbans 


.. 56 


hopwoodi 


.. 54 


intermedia . . 


56, 57 


leucophaea . . 


55, 57 


longicaudata . . 


.. 57 


— — mouhoti 


. . 55 


nigrescens . . 


56, 57 


— pyrrhops 


.. 54 


Bufo melanosticus 


.. 97 


Bungarus flaviceps 


.. 244 





Page. 


Buphus bacchus 


.. 42 


Burmannia disticha . . 


.. 124 


Butastur indicus 


.. 28 


Butorides javanica javanica 


.. 42 


Calanthe alismaefolia . . 


.. 119 


— velutina, sp. nov. 


.. 119 


Callosciurus finlaysoni tachardi . 


.. 103 


Caloperdix oculea borneensis 


.. 35 


oculea 


.. 35 


sumatrana . . 


.. 35 


Calotes versicolor 


.. 96 


Calotropis gigantea 


.. 150 


Calycacanthus 


.. 154 


Cancroma eoromanda . . 


.. 86 


Capila zennara 


187, 189 


Capparis corymbosa . . 


.. 128 


— grandiflora var. annamensis, 


var. nov. . . 127 


— horrida 


.. 128 


Carbo javanicus 


.. 41 


Carissa carandas 


.. 140 


Carine brama brama . . 


.. 27 


fryi 


.. 27 


pulchra 


.. 27 


Carpophaga 


32, 86 


Casuarina equisetifolia 


.. 159 


Casyapa corvus 


.. 189 


Ceriagrion auranticum, sp. nov. . 


.. 236 


— erubescens 


.. 236 


— rubiae 


236, 237 


Cervus schomburgki . . 


.. 105 


— unicolor equinus 


.. 239 


Chalcoparia singalensis koratensis 


.. 52 


singalensis . . 


.. 52 


Chalcophaps indica indica 


.. 32 


Charadrius dubius dubius 


.. 39 


jerdoni 


.. 39 


— himantopus 


.. 39 


Chiysopelea ornata 


.. 97 


Chrysophlegma flavinucha 


. . 53 


lylei 


52, 53 


— — pierrei 


.. 53 


Cirrhopetalum maculosum 


.. 115 


Cirrochroa aoris 


.. 177 


— chione, sp. nov. (PL V). . . 


176, 177 


— malaya 


.. 177 


— orissa 


.. 177 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC SIAM. VOL. IV. 



in 



Cirrochroa surya 
Cissanrpelos Pareira 
Clinacanthus 
Clitorea tematea 
Coeliceia . . 

— membranipes 



pne annamensis, sp. nov. . 

— Laurenciana 

— Mooreana 
Collocalia francica germaini 

merguiensis . . 

— germaini 
Columba curvirostra . . 

— humilis 

— indica 

— intermedia 

— livia intermedia 

— olax . . 

— striata 

— sylvatica 

— tigrina 

— vernans 
Commelina nudiflora 
Congea tomentosa 
Conyza aegyptiaca 
Copera niarginipes 

Corvus coronoides andamanensis . . 

— insolens 

— macrorkynchus . . 

— splendens insolens 
Crinum asiaticum 
Crocidura murina 
Crocopus annamensis 

— viridifrons 

— phoenicopterus annamensis . , 
Crocothetrum smithi, sp. nov. {PI. 
Crocothemis 

— servilia 
servilia 

Curculigo latifolia 
Cyanopterus 
Cyclacanthus, gen. nov. 

— coccineus, sp. nov. 
Cylindrophis rufus 
Cymbidium lancifolium 
Cypripedium villosum 



3) 



Page. 




Tage. 


.. 1?7 


Cypselus paciflcus pacificus 


.. 87 


.. 127 


Cystacanthus turgidus 


.. 153 


.. 154 


Dacrydium elatum 


. . 159 


.. 131 


Datura fastuosa 


. . 141 


.. 237 


Delias agoranis . . . . 1( 


>9, 170 


.. 165 


— agostina agoranis 


.. 169 


.. 117 


— singhapura 


. . 170 


.. 117 


agoranis 


. . 169 


.. 117 


Dendrobium draconis . . 1! 


2, 115 


86, 87 


— Pierardi 


. 115 


86, 87 


— secundum 


. . 114 


.. 86 


— Williamsoni 


.. 115 


.. 31 


Dendrocycna javanica. . 


.. 43 


.. 32 


Dendrophasa 


. . 30 


.. 32 


Desmodium ovalifolium 


. . 131 


.. 32 


Dianella ensifolia 


. . 124 


.. 32 


Dichrocephala latifolia 


. 145 


.. 30 


Dicrurus annectens 


. 90 


.. 32 


annectens 


. . 26 


.. 31 


siamensis 


26, 53 


.. 32 


Dioscorea laurifolia 


. . 126 


.. 31 


Diplacodes trivialis . . . . 1( 


>3, 231 


,:. 125 


Disporum pullum 


. . 125 


.. 142 


Dissemurus paradiseus ceylonensis 


. 91 


.. 145 


grandis 


. 91 


.. 164 


johni - 


. . 91 


107, 195 


malabaricus . . 


. . 91 


.. 105 


malayensis . . 


90, 91 


..106 


paradiseus 


90, 91 


05, 195, 240 


platurus 


. 90 


.. 125 


rangoonensis 


. 91 


.. 80 


Dolichandrone falcata 


. 14] 


.. 30 


Draco maculatus 


.. 93 


.. 30 


haasii 


. 93 


.. 30 


Drosera burmanni 


. 132 


162, 163 


— lunata 


. 132 


.. 163 


Dryophis prasinus 


. 97 


163, 231 


Dupetor flavicollis rlavicollis 


. 43 


.. 164 


Edolius malayensis 


. 90 


.. 125 


Elaeagus annamensis, sp. nov. . . 


. 155 


.. 75 


— latifolia 


. 156 


.. 153 


Elanus caeruleus 


. 29 


.. 153 


Elepbantopus scaber 


. 145 


196, 197 


Engelhardtia spicata 


. 159 


.. 120 


Epimys gracilis 


. 68 


.. 121 


— jerdoni pan 


. 68 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Epimys lepidus 

— marinus 

— orbus 

— surifer finis 

— tenaster 
Eria arnica 

— globifera 

— nivosa, sp. nov. 

— paniculata 
var. angustifolia, var. nov 

— pannea 

— tomentosa 
Eriocaulon Brownianum 

— Hookerianum 
Erolia subminuta 
Euplocamus diardi 

Euthalia monina grahami, ssp. n 

perakana 

Everes rileyi (PL VII). 
Evodia triphylla 
Evolvulus alsinoides . . 
Excalfactoria chinensis chinensis 

— — lineata 
Falco creruleus 

— indicus 

— indus 

— lophotes 

— soloensis 
Felis chaus 

Pimbristylis nigrobrunnea 
Floscopa scandens 
Francolinus chinensis 
Fulica chinensis 

— cinerea 
Gaertnera viminea 
Gallicrex cinerea 
Gallinago gallinago 

— • — raddei 
Gall us bankiva bankiva 

— gallus 
Gecko verticillatus 
Gennaeus lineatus lineatus 

rufipes 

sharpei 

— nycthemerus ripponi 

— ripponi 



(PL V 



Page. 




Page. 


. 68 


Gentiana quadrifaria 


. . 140 


. 68 


Geoemvda impressa 


.. 204 


. 68 


■ — latinuchalis 


.. 204 


. 101 


Geopelia striata striata 


.. 32 


. 68 


Geostachys 


.. 123 


. 117 


— annamensis, sp. nov. 


.. 122 


. 116 


Gerbera piloselloides 


.. 148 


. 116 


Gerydus ancon 


.. 180 


. 116 


— ■ — siamensis [PL V). 


167, 179 


. 116 


Glared a lactea 


.. 38 


. 117 


— orientalis 


.. 38 


. 117 


— pratincola orientalis 


.. 38 


. 125 


Glaucidium cuculoides cuculoides 


.. 27 


. 125 


whiteleyi 


.. 28 


. 39 


Gonatodes glaucus, sp. nov. {PL). 


.. 95 


. 34 


Gorsachius melanolophus 


.. 42 


178 


Graptophyllum 


,. 154 


. 178 


— Earlii 


.. 154 


. 167 


— hortense 


.. 154 


. 129 


— pictum 


.. 154 


. 140 


Gymnodactylus condorensis, sp. nov. (h 


I.). .. 94 


. 34 


— consobrinoides 


.. 94 


. 34 


Gynura annamensis, sp. nov. 


.. 147 


. 29 


Haliastur indus gerrenera 


.. 29 


. 28 


indus 


28, 29 


. 28 


intermedius 


.. 29 


. 29 


Hasora chabrona 


.. 190 


. 29 


— proxissima (PL VI). 


.. 189 


. 244 


■ — vitta 


.. 190 


. 126 


Hedyotis equisetiformis, sp. nov. 


.. 134 


. 125 


— loganioides 


.. 135 


. 36 


— Vachellii 


. . 135 


. 37 


— vestita 


.. 135 


. 37 


Helicteres hirsuta 


.. 129 


. 140 


Hemipodius plumbipes 


.. 36 


. 37 


Herodias garzetta 


.. 41 


. 40 


Hestia leuconoe siamensis (PL VII). 


.. 167 


. 40 


Hibiscus sagittifolius 


.. 129 


. 33 


Hierax eutolmus 


.. 30 


. 33 


Himantopus himantopus 


.. 39 


. . 96 


Hirundo pacifica 


.. 87 


.. 47 


Holarchus cyclurus 


.. 96 


. . 47 


— longicauda 


.. 208 


.. 47 


— violaceus 


.. 96 


33, 34 


Homonoia riparia 


.. 158 


.. 33 


Hoya parasitica 


.. 151 



JOURN. NAT. HIST- SOC- SIAM. VOL IV. 





Page. 




Page. 


Hydrochelidon leucopareia 


. 40 


Leggada pahari pahari 


. 60 


Hydrophasianus chirurgus 


• 3 8 


— rahengis, sp. nov. 


61, 63 


Hypericum japonicurn 


. 129 


Leggadilla 


. 59 


Hypoteenidia striata . . 


. 37 


Lepidagathis hyalina 


153 


gularis 


36, 37 


Lestes, sp. . . , . 


. 238 


Hypoxis aurea 


. 125 


— umbrina 


. 238 


Ibis gigantea 


. 196 


Leucas aspera 


. 143 


Ictinus praecox 


. 233 


Lobaria pulmonaria 


. 160 


Impatiens protraeta 


. 130 


Lobelia trigona 


. 139 


lone annamensis, sp. nov. 


. 115 


Lobivanellus atronuchalis 


. 38 


— paleacea 


. 116 


Locustella certhiola 


. 89 


Ipomaea obscura 


. 140 


Lonicera macrantha 


. 134 


Ischnura senegalensis 


. 235 


Lophastur jerdoni 


. 30 


Jasruinum annamensis, sp. nov. . . 


. 139 


Lophospizias trivirgatus rufitinctus 


. 29 


— pubescens 


. 140 


Lophura diardi 


. 34 


Jussieua angustifolia 


. 133 


— rufa . . 


. 34 


Justicia procumbens . . 


. 153 


castonea 


. 34 


Ksempferia albo-violacea, sp. nov. 


. 122 


Loranthus (Elytranthe) albidus . . 


. 157 


— galanga 


. 122 


— dranensis, sp. nov. 


. 156 


Kalancboe annamica 


. 132 


Lutra 


. 239 


Kittacincla malabarica macrura . . 


. 89 


Lycopersicum esculentum 


. . 141 


suavis 


. 89 


Lygosoma olivaceum . . 


. 96 


Kyllinga monocephala 


. 126 


— vittigerum kronfanum, ssp. nov. 2C 


8, 210 


Lactuca Klossii, sp. nov. 


. 148 


Macaca irus, ssp. 


75, 77 


— versicolor 


. 148 


atriceps . . . . 76, 


77, 81 


Laggera alata 


. 146 


validus 


75, 76 


Lalage fimbriata culminata 


. 52 


Mahonia annamica 


. 127 


neglecta 


. 52 


— conferta 


. 127 


— polioptera 


. 52 


— japonica 


. . 127 


Larus brunneicephalus 


. 40 


— Klossii, sp. nov. 


. 127 


— polo-condore 


. 85 


— ■ nepaulensis 


. . 127 


Lasianthus constrictus 


. 139 


Mariscus sieberianus 


. . 126 


— dalatensis, sp. nov. 


. 138 


Meladomus 


.. 4 


— Wrayi 


. 138 


Melanthesiopsis fruticosa 


. . 158 


Lathrecista asiatica asiatica 


, 231 


Melastoma candidum . . 


. . 133 


Laxita boulleti 


. 178 


— decemfidum 


. . 133 


— tellesia 


. 179 


— Klossii, sp. nov. . . H 


(2, 133 


boulleti (PL 7). . . 11 


8, 179 


Menetes bei"dmorei mouhoti 


. . 100 


lyclene 


. . 179 


Metopidius indicus 


.. 38 


Leea coecinea 


. . 130 


Microhierax eutolmus 


.. 30 


Leggada . . 


. . 59 


Microhyla butleri 


. . 214 


— nitidula 


. . 63 


— latastii 


. . 214 


nitidula 


. . 63 


Micromerus lineatu3 . . . . 1< 


52, 164 


popoea 


. . 63 


Micronisus poliopsis 


.. 29 


— pahari 


. . 59 


Micropus pacificus 


.. 87 


gairdneri, ssp. nov. . . 60, 


62, 63 


Milvus govinda 


. . 29 



VI 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND ILLUSTRATIONS 





Page. 


Page. 


Milvus govinda govinda 


.. 29 


Niebubria decandra .. .. .. 128 


Mixornis rubricapilla . . 


.. 85 


Nilasera opalina . . . . . . 184 


— — condorensis, ssp. nov. 


.. 88 


Nisaetus alboniger . . . . 28 


Monochoria plantaginea 


. . 125 


Nycticorax nycticorax . . 42 


Monotropa uniflora 


.. 139 


Oenopopelia tranquebarica bumilis . . 32 


Morinda polyneura aspera 


,. 136 


Oldenlandia Stocksii . . . . . . 135 


Motacilla certhiola 


.. 89 


— subtilior, sj). nov. . . . . 135 


— tipbia 


.. 88 


Opbiorrbiza Harrisiana . . . . 135 


Mus 


.. 59 


Ortbetrum . . . . . . 163 


— bukit 


.. 68 


— pruinosum .'. . . . . 162 


— cinnamomeus 


.. 65 


— sabina . . . . 162, 231 


— cremoriventer 


.. 68 


Ortbopbeetus barroni, sp. nov. (PI. VI). . . 187 


— germaini 


.. 82 


— omeia . . . . . . 189 


— germani 


.. 82 


— pbaneus . . . . . . 189 


— nitidulus 


.. 63 


Ortbotomus atrogularis . . 89 


— pabari 


.. 59 


Osbeckia cbinensis . . . . . . 132 


Muscadivora 


.. 86 


Osmotreron . . . . 30 


— aenea 


75, 85 


— pbayrei . . . . 30 


aenea 


.. 86 


Ostodes Kerrii . . . . . . 158 


pusilla 


.. 86 


Otochilus porrecta . . . . . . 119 


sylvatica 


31, 86 


Otocompsa flaviventris . . 51 


— bicolor 


.. 75 


flaviventris . . . . 52 


Mussaenda dranensis, sp. nov. 


.. 136 


johnsoni . . . . 51 


— pubeseens 


.. 135 


minor . . . . 51 


— variolosa 


.. 136 


Otus bakkamoena lettia . . 27 


Mycalesis siamica, sp. nov. (PL IV). 


.. 170 


— scops malayanus . , 26 


Myrina cyara . . . . 


.. 187 


Oxyglossus Iaevis martensii . . 97 


— melisa 


.. 187 


Pacbylabra . . . . 3, 4, 7, 10 


Myristicivora bicolor bicolor 


.. 191 


— ampullacea . . . . . . 5 


condorensis, ssj). nov. 


.. 191 


— angelica, sp. nov. (PI. I. & II). 3, 5, 6, 11, 16 


Natrix ground wateri, sj). nov. (PL VIII). 


205, 206 


— begini (PL I. and II). . . 5, 6, 21, 23, 45 


— inas . . 


.. 206 


— borneensis . . . . . . 4, 5 


— nigrocinctus . . . . 206 


207, 208 


— carinata . . . . 20 


— piscator 


196, 19 7 


— celebensis . . . . ..4,5 


Nepentbes anamensis 


.. 155 


— conica (PL I. and II). 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13 


Neptis cartica burmana 


-.. 177 


— dalyi .. .. 5, 11, 17 


meraca, ssp. nov. (PL V). 


.. 177 


— globosa . . 4, 5, 14, 15, 20, 45 


— carticoides 


.. 177 


— gracilis (PL I.) .. .. 5, 6, 11 


— nandina 


.. 178 


— maura . , . . 45 


— soma 


.. 178 


— pesmei (PL I. and II). .. 5, 6, 7, 23 


Nettopus coromandelianus 


.. 43 


— polita (PL I). .. 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12 


Neurobasis chinensis 


.. 164 


compressa . . . . . . 8 


Neurotbemis rluctuans 


.. 231 


— — major . . . . . . 8 


— fulvia 


.. 163 


— turbinis (PL I). 2, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 15, 17 


— intermedia intermedia 


.. 164 


dalyi (PL I). .. 3, 5, 17, 18 


— tullia tullia 


163, 231 


lacustris, (PL I). ., 5, 20 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC SIAM. VOL. IV. 



vn 





Page. 






Page. 


Pachylabra turbinis subampullacea, 




Pila 




3 


(PI. I. and II). 5, 6, 17, 18, 


20, 21 


Pinus 




.. 114 


— winkleyi 


. 45 


— insularis 




.. 114 


Paederia tomentosa 


. 139 


— khasya 




111, 114 


Palpopleura sexmaculata 


. 163 


— Merkusii 


111 


114, 241 


Panicum montanum 


. 126 


Pithecolobium clypearia 




.. 131 


Panisea parviflora 


. 119 


Platycentrum 




.. 134 


Pantala flavescens 


. 233 


Platyclinus 




.. 119 


Papilio alcinous 


. 169 


Pluchea indica 




.. 146 


— laos, sp. nov. (PL IV). 


. 168 


Podiceps albipennis 




.. 43 


— plutonious 


. 169 


— fluviatilis albipennis 




.. 43 


Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, ssp. 


. 78 


Pogonatum aloides 




.. 160 


eochinensis 


. 78 


Polygonum chinense . . 




.. 155 


Parra indica 


. 38 


— strigosum 




.. 155 


Passer montanus malaccensis 


. 91 


Polyplectrum bicalcaratum bicalearal 


um 


.. 33 


Pavetta tomentosa 


. 136 


chinquis 




.. 33 


Pavo chinquis 


. 33 


Portulaca oleracea 




.. 129 


Pentliema binghami . . 


. 176 


Potomarcha obscura 




162, 231 


mimetica, ssp. nov. (PI. V). 167, 17 


5, 176 


Prismatomeris albidiflora 




.. 137 


— darlisa . . . . 17 


5, 176 


Prunus occidentalis 




. . 132 


melema, ssp. nov. (PI. V). 17 


5, 176 


Pseudagrion bengalense (PI. 10). . . 




.. 236 


mimetica 


. 175 


— laidlawi (PI. 10). 




.. 236 


— mimetica 


. 175 


— microcephalum (PI. 10). 




.. 236 


Peperomia reflexa 


. 155 


— siamensis, sp. nov. (PI. 10). 




.. 235 


Perdix charltonii 


. 35 


— williamsoni (PI. 10). 




.. 236 


— oculea 


. 35 


Pseudocopera 




.. 231 


— longirostris 


. 35 


— arachnoides 


231 


237, 238 


Peristrophe fera intermedia 


. 154 


— trotteri, sp. nov. 




237, 238 


Phacellaria tonkinensis 


. 158 


Pseudophaea masoni 




.. 164 


Phaius Wallichii 


. 117 


Psychoti'ia arborea 




.. 138 


Phalocrocorax carbo . . 


. 41 


— Bodenii, sp. nov. 




.. 137 


indicus . . , . 


. 40 


— langbianensis, sp. nov. 




.. 137 


— javanicus 


. 41 


— montana 




.. 137 


Pbasianus bankiva 


. 33 


— symplocifolia 




.. 137 


— gallus 


. 85 


Pteropus condorensis . . 




.. 80 


— humiae burmanicus 


. 47 


— hypomelanus condorensis 




.. 80 


— roulroul 


. 34 


Pycnonotus finlaysoni 




.. 88 


— rufus 


. 34 


Eagadia crisilda 




.. 173 


Philautus 


. 203 


— cristata 




.. 173 


Phcenicophoeus longicaudatus 


. 87 


— critias, sp. nov. (PI. IV). .. 




171, 173 


Pholidota 


. 119 


— critolaus 




.. 173 


— convallarise 


. 118 


Eallus gularis 




.. 36 


Phyllopneuste borealis 


. 90 


Bana aenea, sp. nov. (PL VIII). 




210, 212 


xanthodryas 


. 90 


— cataracta 




.. 244 


Pbylloscopus borealis borealis 


. 90 


— doriM (PL IX). 215, 216, 217, 


218, 


223, 


Piccarda agoranis 


. 169 




224, 


228, 244 



VIII 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 





Page. 




Page. 


Bana erythrsBa 


.. 97 


Rhopodytes tristis longicaudatus . 


.. 87 


— kohchangffi, sp. nor. {/'I. IX). 


215, 216, 


Rhyothemis phyllis phyllis 


. . 233 


219, 


'223, 225, 228 


— variegata 


. . 233 


— macrognathus . . 216, 


221, 223, 224 


Rollulus roulroul 


. . 34 


dabana, subsp. nov. (PI. IX) 


216, 219, 221 


Rotala rotundifolia 


.. 133 


macrognathus (Pi. IX). 216 


, 218, 220, 


Rubus annamensis 


.. 131 




221, 227, 228 


— glomeratus 


.. 131 


— mortenseni 


212, 213, 214 


— (Idceobatus) Klossi, .s^>. nov. 


, .. 131 


— nigrovittata 


212, 213, 214 


— rosaefolius 


.. 131 


— palavanensls 


.. 212 


— trijugus 


.. 113 


— pileata (PI. IX) 215, 


216, 222, 224 


Saccolabium calceolare 


.. 120 


— plicatella (fig.) . . 216, 


227, 228, 229 


— gemmatum 


.. 121 


— pullus 


.. 193 


— Eberhardtii 


.. 121 


— tasariK 


.. 193 


— Klossii, sp. nov. 


.. 120 


Rapala rhaecus 


.. 186 


— rubescens 


.. 121 


— sphinx 


186, 187 


Sarcogrammus indicus atronuchali 


s 38, 39 


— tara 


.. 186 


indicus 


.. 39 


Rattus blythi 


65, 66, 67, 69 


Sciurus albivexilli 


80, 104 


— bukit 


66, 67 


— cinnamomeus 


.. 100 


— creraoriventer cremoriventer 


65, 66, 67 


— dissimilis 


.. 78 


tenaster 


.. 66 


— rinlaysoni 


.. 103 


— gracilis 


.. 67 


rinlaysoni 


103, 104 


— griseiventer 


.. 82 


— — folletti 


.. 104 


— lepidus 


.. 67 


prachin, ssp. nov. 


103, 104 


— marinus 


66, 67 


rajasima, s.s/j. nov. 


103, 104 


— orbus 


65, 66, 67 


tachardi 


.. 103 


— pan . . 


.. 67 


trotteri 


.. 104 


— rajah 


.. 75 


— ferrugineus cinnamomeus . 


.. 100 


finis 


.. 101 


— germaini 


80, 81, 104 


— rapit 


.. 67 


— javensis 


.. 100 


— rattus germaini . . 


82, 83 


— mouhotii 


.. 100 


— sakeratensis 


67, 68 


— nox 


80, 104 


Ratufa bicolor 


.. 71 


— splendens 


.. 100 


— gigantea 


.. 71 


Scleria chinensis 


.. 126 


— melanopepla 


.. 71 


Scolopax gallinago 


.. 40 


condor ensis, ssp. nov. 


71, 72, 80 


— nebularia 


.. 39 


leucogenys . . 


71, 100 


Scops lettia 


.. 27 


peninsulas 


.. 71 


— malayanus 


.. 26 


sinus 


.. 71 


Scutellaria discolor 


.. 142 


— pbeeopepla 


.. 71 


— langbianensis, sp. nov. 


. . 142 


Eauwolfia (Ophioxylon) serpentinum 


.. 140 


Selaginella atroviridis 


.. 159 


Renanthera Imschootiana 


.. 120 


Sida acuta 


.. 129 


lihinolophus minor 


.. 80 


Sigmatogyne Pantlingii 


.. 118 


Rhizothera longirostris 


.. 35 


Simotes 


.. 96 


Rhodomyrtus tomentosus 


.. 132 


— : longicauda 


.. 208 


Rhopodytes tristis hainanus 
1 


.. 87 


joynsoni 


.. 208 



JOURN. NAT. HIST. SOC SIAM. VOL. IV. 



IX 





Page. 




Page. 


Sniilax annamensis, sj). nov. 


.. 124 


Thaumatibis gigantea 


.. 196 


— prolif era 


.. 124 


Thauria latbyi siamensis (Pi. VII). .. 167 


Solanum indicum 


.. 141 


Tholymis tillarga 


164, 233 


— nigrum 


.. 141 


Thuya 


.. Ill 


Sopubia delphinifolia 


:. 141 


Thrixspermum fragrans, sp. nov. 


.. 121 


Spilornis clieela rutherfordi 


.. 28 


— notabile 


.. 121 


— ■ rutherfordi 


.. 28 


Thysanolrena agrostis . . 


.. 126 


Spiranthes australis . . 


.. 121 


Torenia asiatica 


.. 141 


Spizaetus alboniger . . 


.. 28 


Toxocarpus Hosseusii 


.. 150 


— rutitinctus 


.. 29 


— Klossii, sp. nov. 


..149 


Sponias mangifera 


.. 239 


Tragulus 


.. 75 


Sterna dougalli 


.. 85 


— affinis 


.. 102 


— leucopareia 


.. 40 


— kanchil affinis . . 


.. 102 


— sinensis 


.. 40 


Treron 


.. 30 


Stichopthalma cambodia 


.. 174 


— curvirostra curvirostra 


.. 31 


cambodia 


173, 174 


— nepalensis 


.. 31 


editha, ssp. nov. (PI. IV). 


173, 174 


— olax . . 


.. 30 


— louisa 


.. 174 


— pompadora phayrei 


.. 30 


siamensis 


.. 174 


— vernans vernans 


.. 31 


Streptopelia suratensis tigrina 


.. 32 


Tridax procumbens 


.. 147 


Striga lutea 


.. 141 


Tringoides hypoleucos 


.. 86 


Strix Candida 


.. 26 


Tringa chirurgus < . . 


.. 38 


-~- indrani maingayi 


.. 26 


— ■ glareola 


.. 39 


— newarense 


.. 26 


— hypoleucos 


.. 86 


■ — ■ seloputo 


.. 26 


— nebularia 


.. 39 


Strobilanthes isophyllus 


.. 152 


— ochropus 


.. 39 


— oligocephalus 


.. 152 


— subminuta 


.. 39 


— saltiensis, sp. nov. 


.. 152 


Trithemis aurora aurora 


.. 164 


— scaber 


.. 152 


— festiva 


.. 164 


— squalens, sp. nov. 


.. 151 


Triumfetta pseudocana 


.. 129 


Symium maingayi 


.. 26 


Tropicoperdix charltoni 


.. 35 


Talicada metana, sp. nov. (Pi. VI). 


.. 181 


— chloropus 


.. 34 


— nyseus 


.. 182 


Tropidonotus eisenhoferi 


. 206, 207, 208 


Tamiops macclellandi dolphoides, ssp. nov. 101 


— nigrocinctus 


206, 207 


liantis 


.. 101 


— piscator 


.. 96 


rodolphi 


.. 101 


Tupaia concolor 


., 99 


— lylei 


.. 101 


— dissimilis 


.. 78 


Tautatus 


.. 59 


— glis belangeri 


78, 99 


Terinos terpander intermedia (Pi. VII). 


.. 167 


— — cambodiana . . 


78, 99 


Testudo emys 


204, 205 


concolor 


.. 99 


— impressa 


204, 205 


dissimilis 


78, 79 


— latinuchalis 


204, 205 


T urdus macrourus 


85, 89 


— pseudemys 


204, 205 


Turnix pugnax plumbipes 


. . 36 


Tetrao cbinensis 


34, 36 


rostrata 


.. 36 


Tetrastigma planicaule var. 




Tylophora dalatensis, sp. nov. 


.. 150 


annamense, var nov. 


.. 130 


— Pierrei 


.. 151 



INDEX OF SPECIES AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page- 



Tyto Candida 




. 26 


Uraria crinita 




. 131 


— lagopoides 




. 131 


Urena lobata 




. 129 


Urothemis signata signata 




. 233 


Vanda Micholitzii 




. 120 


— Watsoni 




. 120 


Vandellia pedunculata 




. 141 


Varan us 




. 75 


Verbena officinalis 




. 142 


Vernonia (Xipholepis) annamensis, sjj. nov. . 


. 143 


— bracteata 




. 144 



Vernonia (Xipbolepis) dranensis sp 

Vestal is gracilis. . 

Viola annamensis, sp. nov. 

— distans 

— serpens 
Vitis planicaulis 
Vivipara . . 
Wedelia albicaulis, sp 
Zetagyne, gen. nov. 

— albirlora, sj). not 
Zyxomma obtusum 



Page. 
144 
164 
128 
128 
128 
130 
14 
146 
118 
118 
233 



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